Each driver is required to own the basics of first aid, both to himself and to other victims, and to have a first aid kit. It is necessary, as they say, not for a tick, but in order to be useful to your knowledge and skills in an extreme situation that can save a person's life.
What are the typical traits of transport accidents?
- Suddenness, surprise.
- "Human factor" is the inability to control one's reaction and the actions of other participants in an accident due to stress and suddenness.
- Multiple mechanical injuries resulting from an accident.
- Possible danger to life in an accident.
What do the traffic rules say about the provision of medical care in an accident?
«2.10.When involved in a traffic accident, the driver must:
d) take possible measures to provide first aid to the injured, call an ambulance, and if this is not possible, seek the help of those present and send the injured to a medical facility »
Timelyand effective medical first aid at the scene is an imp
Is there an algorithm for first-aid actions in case of an accident( in case of an accident.)
When providing first aid, it is necessary to act according to the rules:
- Immediately determine the nature and source of the injury
The most common injuries in case of an accident are a combination of injuries to the skull, lower limbs andchest
- Extract the victim from the car or take it out of the ditch, inspect it, release it from clothing, undo, tear and cut it.)
At the same time one must have the skills of extracting the injuredout of the car in order not to harm the inadvertent actions
- Provide first aid in accordance with the identified injuries
- Move the victim to a safe place, hide from the cold, heat or rain
- Call the doctor( ambulance)
- Arrange transportation of the injured person(if this is necessary)
Please note that in some cases, any transportation of the victim is contraindicated( stopping breathing and cardiac activity, severe bleeding, multiple injuries), so kato can be life threatening.
- Determine the scope of tasks for the lifeguard.
In the first place are life-threatening conditions:
- arterial bleeding;
- breathing disorder;
- cardiac arrest.
Everything else( burns, pain in the heart, etc.) - then.
The lifesaver must in 5-10 seconds determine which of the three most important states are available and operate in order, from more important to less important activities.
- Stopping of external arterial bleeding.
That is, if there is an "open valve" - the artery from which bleeding continues, then it must be closed, otherwise all other activities may not save the life of the victim. The main thing at achievement of this purpose - efficiency, that is ability to find, get and impose a tourniquet for the minimal time. This is not only the time to stop the bleeding( determines the amount of blood loss), but also the time before the restoration of respiration and circulation, if necessary. Disturbance of brain functions is reversible with the restoration of blood circulation in 3-5 minutes, so there is practically no time for reflection.
- Restoration of respiration and cardiac activity.
If the victim does not regain consciousness, the presence and frequency of breathing, as well as the heart rate on the carotid artery, should be determined immediately.
What to do if a victim with an unconsciousness, breathing and heartbeat accident:
You need to act quickly and clearly in the following sequence:
- release of the airway;
- mouth-to-mouth respiration;
- external cardiac massage.
- Restoration of consciousness.
If the victim is unconscious, but breathing and the pulse is within the normal range, we must try to bring him to consciousness, giving him a sniff of ammonia.
How to assess the condition of the victim in order to provide first aid in an accident?
If the victim was unconscious immediately after the injury, and then regained consciousness, then he or others should report this. The length of loss of consciousness is judged on the severity of the injury. The state of stunning is determined by a verbal contact with the victim.
- The status is clear - when there is complete speech contact and the victim gives meaningful answers.
- Easy stunning - when the responses are slowed down and there is a disorientation and confusion of the answer.
- Stunning is expressed - when the victim gives monosyllabic and inadequate answers: "yes", "no".
How do I get the victim out of the car to provide first aid in an accident?
Remembering that the victim often has a damaged thorax, it should be carried very carefully, carrying out traction for axillary areas.
In doing so, try not to squeeze the chest.
Take care not to cause pain to the injured and so that your actions do not worsen his condition.
How to transport the victim depending on the type of injury and severity of the condition?
The main requirement for transportation of the victim to a medical institution is to ensure peace and sufficient amenities. During transportation it is necessary to take into account the state of health of the victim. If it is satisfactory, it can be transported by passing transport. Not every passing transport, especially cargo, can be used for this, since shaking and jolting can cause additional trauma and worsen the overall condition.
- In case of craniocerebral trauma, the patient should be transported only by ambulance and in a lying position. It is advisable to place around the head a roller from a towel folded in the form of a donut. The injured person is prohibited from moving independently.
- In case of injury to the injured chest, transport the person in a semi-sitting position.
- In case of fracture of the clavicle - in the sitting position.
- With closed stomach injury - in the supine position on the back with a cold on the stomach.
- In case of injury to the face or jaws - in the prone position with the head turned on its side.
- When the trauma of the lumbar spine - in the supine position on a rigid basis.
- With closed head injury - in the supine position with the head turned on its side. This will prevent the sinking of the tongue( a sunken tongue will block the airways and cause breathing problems, up to the need for resuscitation) and, in the event of vomiting, will not allow the vomit and saliva to get into the respiratory tract, which is also unsafe for the life of the victim.
- When injured, the pelvis of the injured person should be transported in the "frog" position.
- If the victim is in a state of shock or fainting, he is transported lying in the "penknife" position( legs are raised, but not more than 15-20˚).