There are several types of external bleeding - arterial, venous, capillary. The type of bleeding depends on the choice of how to stop it.
The most dangerous is the arterial bleeding from the large vessels( the femoral, brachial, carotid arteries), so it can cause incompatible life with a life within a few minutes. A distinctive feature of arterial bleeding is the pulsating nature of intense bleeding with scarlet blood.
Venous bleeding, as a rule, is not as dangerous as bleeding from the corresponding artery. A distinctive feature of venous bleeding is the relatively slow and uneven nature of bleeding with dark blood with a burgundy tinge. However, with a wound in the veins of the neck and chest, there is another danger - in these veins at the time of inhalation there is a negative pressure, so when wounded in their lumen with deep inspiration through the wound, oxygen can enter. Bubbles of air, penetrating with a blood flow into the heart, can cause blockage of the blood vessels of the heart or( and
With capillary bleeding, blood oozes out of the wound with droplets, bleeding often stops on its own or after applying a simple bandage.
First aid for bleeding.
The most common methods of stopping bleeding are:
- Giving the elevated position of the injured part of the body( limb).
- Pressing the vessel over.
- Sharp bending of the limb.
- Overlapping the wound with a pressure bandage.
- Overlapping the hemostatic tourniquet above the bleeding site.
In case of severe bleeding, immediately remove the injury site by cutting clothes or shoes. At the same time, clothes should be removed from the healthy side, and shoes - from the heel. The assistant must hold the limb. In winter, it is sufficient to cut the window-valve in the clothing so that after the bleeding stops and the dressing is applied, close the exposed part of the body with this valve.
It is advisable for the caregiver to wear rubber gloves for personal safety.
When stopping the external arterial bleeding it is necessary to understand that if there is an "open valve" - an artery from which bleeding continues, then it must be closed, otherwise all other measures may not save the life of the victim. The main thing at achievement of this purpose - efficiency, that is ability to find, get and impose a tourniquet for the minimal time. This is not only the time to stop the bleeding( determines the amount of blood loss), but also the time before the restoration of respiration and circulation, if this is necessary. Disturbance of brain functions is reversible with the restoration of blood circulation in 3-5 minutes, so there is practically no time for reflection.
Arterial bleeding requires immediate stopping at the scene, often with harness or twist. Their use requires certain skills and knowledge.
In arterial bleeding, a tourniquet or twist is applied 10-15 cm above the wound. Before the extremity should be lifted up and put any tissue under the tourniquet( to avoid damaging the skin).While preparing to apply the tourniquet, you can use your finger to press the bleeding vessel above the wound or temporarily flex the limb in the joint( which can also squeeze the vessel).The tourniquet is allowed to be applied to the victim when trying to stop bleeding for up to 2 hours in the summer, up to 1 hour in winter. On the tourniquet, you need to leave a note indicating the time when the tourniquet was applied. After the end of the period of application, if it is not possible to make a final stop of the bleeding( for example, the victim has not yet been delivered to the hospital), it is possible to loosen the tourniquet for 2-3 minutes, after pressing the damaged vessel with a finger, followed by a one-time repeated tightening of the tourniquet for the aforementioned time.
When applying a twist-twist from a handy material( a scarf, a narrow belt, a towel, a handkerchief, a tie, etc.), make a wide loop, put it on the damaged limb and, placing the knot at the top, put a stick under it, which is twisted.
The tourniquet is misdirected if there is a pulse below the harness, as well as the blueing and cooling of the limb part below the harness. The harness is correctly applied if the ripple below the harness stops.
In case of traumatic tearing off of a limb, the tourniquet should be placed above the damaged area, even if bleeding is absent.
When the bleeding stops, finger pressing the artery to the bone, it is necessary to press not the wound itself, but the vessel should be higher than the injury site. Thus, the temporal artery is pressed against the ear, the subclavian is in front of the clavicle, the drowsy is in the neck, the femoral artery in the inguinal region, and the arteries of the arm in the armpit and shoulder.
Finger pressing can be effective for a short time, as it requires considerable physical effort and constant external assistance, so it should be replaced in the shortest possible time by the application of a bundle.
The way to stop bleeding by maximizing limb flexion can be used only when there are no fractures in this area.
To stop venous bleeding it is usually enough to impose a sterile compressive bandage on the wound. With a properly applied bandage, bleeding stops( the bandage does not get wet).If the bandage is soaked, you can put another one on top without removing the first one. This bandage can not be removed for a long time.
For capillary bleeding, a simple dressing is sufficient. To prevent infection, you must lubricate the surface of the skin with iodine solution, which is covered with blood.
Owing to massive( 1.5-2l) external or internal bleeding( into the abdominal, thoracic cavity), acute anemia can occur. His signs: pallor, tinnitus, darkening in the eyes, thirst, rapid pulse and breathing, weakness, dizziness, until loss of consciousness and death, if not immediately rendered medical care. Acute anemia with external bleeding requires checking whether the bleeding actually continues, and the horizontal position of the victim with a lower position of the head relative to the body and legs, in order to improve the flow of blood to the brain.
In case of severe bleeding, promptly call an ambulance.
It is advisable to try to find out the blood group and the Rh factor of the victim before the ambulance arrives. Previously, there was a practice of making a corresponding mark in the passport. If the victim reported these data orally, it is better to fix them in writing. Such an approach will speed up the provision of medical care in the event that the condition of the victim worsens by the arrival of the First Aid and he can not speak.
What not to do with bleeding.
- Leave the victim alone.
- Allow the victim to hit the body of the rescuer. Blood can be a source of infection.
- Remove foreign bodies( knife, large fragments) from the wound.
- Remove tourniquet to check bleeding.
- Apply a narrow tourniquet to the naked body without a cloth lining.
- Weak or too tightly apply a tourniquet.
- Keep the harness for longer than the allowed time.
- Move the injured person if there is a suspicion of a fracture of the spine.