What is salmonella?
Salmonellosis is a common infection caused by Salmonella bacteria. Salmonellosis in most cases leads to damage to the organs of the digestive tract. Salmonellosis is accompanied by intoxication and dehydration of the body.
What is the cause of salmonellosis?
Salmonella can live in the intestines of humans and many species of animals( chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, sheep, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, rats, some species of reptiles and even insects).The main way of infection with salmonella is food, Salmonella infected with meat of animals and birds, fish, eggs and egg products, milk and dairy products, etc., can also be used as a source of salmonella infection. In addition, salmonella can spread in contaminated dwellings and foodstuffs with wild litterBirds: pigeons, sparrows, starlings, gulls, etc.
Salmonella is well tolerated by freezing and drying, resistant to salting and smoking, stored for up to 20 days in milk, up to 4 months in meat, up to 5 monthss - in open water, up
Salmonellosis can also be infected by another person. A patient with salmonellosis - a patient or a carrier - is especially dangerous for children of the first year of life, highly sensitive to intestinal infections.
What are the varieties of salmonella?
- gastrointestinal form;
- typhoid-like form;
- septic form;
How does salmonella appear?
Salmonellosis in gastrointestinal form usually begins with cramping pain in the abdomen, profuse vomiting and / or diarrhea. The stool is liquid, often with greens, sometimes with an admixture of mucus and blood. The general intoxication is manifested by an increase in body temperature to 38-39 ° C, chills, weakness, headache and muscle pain, muscle cramps. Intoxication can last up to 7 days.
Salmonellosis has a degree, the severity of which is determined by the severity of dehydration. Dehydration occurs due to vomiting and diarrhea in - when the loss of water and salts is not replenished in the proper amount. Easy dehydration is manifested by a feeling of thirst, dry mouth and decreased urination. As the deficit of water and salts increases, dizziness arises in the body, breathing becomes faster, the pulse weakens, limbs become cold, fainting is possible.
Salmonella with a typhoid-like form can be distinguished by the absence of gastrointestinal disorders. With typhoid-like and septic forms of salmonellosis, the pathological process covers many organs and systems of the body. The manifestations of general intoxication increase, the liver and spleen increase, blood pressure decreases, the pulse rate decreases. The fever can last up to 3 weeks. Salmonella with a septic form is characterized by a prolonged severe course and can lead to death.
There are no symptoms of salmonellosis in bacteriocarcinosis, salmonella are found in the gastrointestinal tract in laboratory studies. Bacteriosis for up to 3 months can be observed in the recovery period in patients with salmonellosis. Chronic carriage is also distinguished when salmonella is secreted for more than 3 months. It is possible and "transient" carriage, when salmonella is isolated from the patient once.
How to diagnose salmonellosis?
Salmonellosis is diagnosed by bacteriological examination of feces, blood, urine, vomit, gastric flushing, bile, and serological diagnostics to detect antibodies to Salmonella.
How to treat salmonellosis?
Salmonellosis is an occasion for hospitalization especially in severe or complicated form of the disease, as well as children and the elderly.
Salmonella with a gastrointestinal form is usually treated with gastric lavage and the appointment of enterosorbents. Assign activated charcoal( carbolong), diosmectite( smecta), methyl silicic acid( enterosgel);Polyphepan( liferan).When
gastrointestinal form salmonellosis also prescribe an antimicrobial agent nifuroxazide( nifuroxazide, Enterofuril, diastat) to destroy causative bacteria. In severe salmonellosis, including at generalizovanyh forms, use antibiotics: ciprofloxacin( tsiprinol, tsifran, tsiproksol), ofloxacin( ofloksin, floksal), chloramphenicol( chloramphenicol), doxycycline( JUnidoks soljutab, doxycycline, vibramitsin).When
salmonellosis important compensate shortage of water and salts in the body, which take into glucose-saline solutions( rehydron touring).
Indomethacin is commonly used to treat symptoms of intoxication in adults. Advantageously assignment enzyme preparations( kreon, Festalum, mezim, panzinorm et al.) And antispasmodics - drotaverine( Nospanum, bespo, Vero drotaverin) or mebeverina( Duspatalin).
For the restoration of the intestinal microflora, probiotics( linex, yoghurt rosel, bifi-forms, hilak) are prescribed.
What is the danger of salmonellosis?
Salmonellosis can cause an infectious-toxic shock, which is accompanied by acute edema of the brain, as well as acute cardiac and renal insufficiency.
Salmonellosis form fraught with septic formation of purulent infection foci in various organs with subsequent development osteomyelitis, arthritis, endocarditis, aortitis, cholecystitis, tonsillitis, meningitis etc. Salmonellosis can lead to complications such as appendicitis, peritonitis.
Salmonellosis, regardless of form, is fraught with the development of relapses.
Salmonellosis, or rather one of its symptoms - dehydration - is extremely dangerous for newborns and young children. Dehydration develops in them especially quickly and threatens with serious complications - up to a coma and a lethal outcome.