Increased lymphocytes in the blood of the child: the causes of an increased number of lymphocytes

  • When the level of lymphocytes is increased
  • Causes of lymphocytosis
  • Opinion of Komarovsky
  • Symptoms of
  • What to do
  • Treatment of
  • Prophylaxis of

Any changes in blood test of a child cause in parents' experiences, especially if the number of white blood cells changes, it is known that such cells are representatives of the immune system. If the mother sees an excess of lymphocytes on the form of the analysis or hears the word "lymphocytosis" from the doctor, she wants to know what it is, from which such blood cells are raised and whether the high level of lymphocytes for the baby is dangerous.

When the level of lymphocytes is increased

Lymphocytes are called the leukocyte group, the main function of which in the child's body is to participate in immune reactions. T These cells protect children from viruses and other adverse effects. They are produced in the bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes and other organs, and then go in
to the blood or stored in the lymphoid tissue, and when their term of "life" is completed, are destroyed in the spleen tissues.
The level of lymphocytes is determined with the help of a clinical blood test, displaying in the leukogram( leukocyte formula) as a percentage of all leukocytes. Although lymphocytes are a group of cells( isolating B-lymphocytes, several types of T-lymphocytes and other subpopulations), a common blood test does not determine the different types of such white blood cells individually.
Lymphocytes - a group of blood cells responsible for immunity

The body count just born babies are not very many, because their immune system is not yet fully operational. But a few days after birth, the number of lymphocytes begins to increase and up to 4 years of age exceeds the number of other types of leukocytes.

At about 4-5 years, the level of lymphocytes and neutrophils becomes equal, after which the number of neutrophils begins to predominate.

upper limit of the norm of lymphocytes in children think:

A newborn baby


On the 5th day of life


With 10 days to a year


In children 1-5 years 65%

In children older than5 years 55%

In children older than 10 years


If the result of the analysis showed an increased number of lymphocytes in excess of these figures, it is called lymphocytosis .It is relative if the number of lymphocytes does not exceed the norm, but only seems to be overestimated because of a decrease in the level of other leukocytes. The total number of white blood cells can remain normal or be increased.

absolute lymphocytosis also occurs, caused by an excess of lymphocytes in the peripheral circulation due to their formation activity in the bone marrow and other places or insufficient destruction in the spleen.

absolute lymphocytosis under the microscope

Causes of lymphocytosis lymphocytosis

most common symptom of the disease acts, because an increased number of white blood cells needed to fight an infectious agent or other negative effects on the child's body.

To diseases, due to which in the blood of children are inflated lymphocytes, include:

  • ARVI.
  • Viral hepatitis.
  • Measles.
  • Infection caused by adenovirus.
  • Chicken pox.
  • Rubella.
  • Influenza.
  • Herpes infection.
  • Toxoplasmosis.
  • Infection with HIV.
  • Infectious mononucleosis.
  • Enterovirus infection.
  • Whooping cough.
  • Infection with cytomegalovirus.
  • Brucellosis.
  • Infection with parasites or protozoa.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Leukemia, which can be both acute and chronic lymphatic leukemia.
  • Malignant thymoma.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Smith's disease is a rare infectious disease with lymphocytosis.
  • Franklin disease. This is called another rare pathology, in which lymphoid tissue proliferates and the production of immunoglobulins increases.

However, a high percentage of lymphocytes is not always associated with a viral infection or a tumor process. If lymphocytosis is relative, the cause of this result of the blood test is factors that reduce the number of other types of white blood cells, , for example, neutropenia due to vitamin B12 deficiency or the use of certain drugs that depress neutrophils.

In case of chicken pox, the level of lymphocytes in the baby's blood is overestimated by

. Also, non-infectious causes of the appearance of lymphocytosis are:

  • Arsenic or lead poisoning, as well as carbon disulphide or tetrachloroethane.
  • Autoimmune diseases.
  • Hyperthyroidism.
  • Bronchial asthma.
  • Avitaminosis.
  • Removal of the spleen, resulting in the blood cells can not be disposed of in the right amount.
  • The effect of certain medicines - medicines against epilepsy, hormonal drugs, antibiotics, narcotic analgesics and others.

It should be separately noted that after recovery, the level of lymphocytes does not immediately return to normal levels. In most children, within a few weeks, and sometimes months, after the disease is over, lymphocytes will be detected in increased numbers, but gradually their level will decrease.

The opinion of Komarovsky

A well-known pediatrician considers the definition of a leukogram in a sick child an important analysis that allows to know what kind of infection a small patient has. In his practice, Komarovsky often encountered lymphocytosis and confirms that is the most frequent cause of an increase in the percentage of such blood cells in childhood being a viral infection.
We recommend that you watch the recording of Dr. Komarovsky's program, which details the topic of the clinical analysis of babies' blood:

Symptoms of

. If the lymphocytosis is caused by a viral infection, the child's general condition worsens, weakness, fever, dyspnea. The child is worse eating, there may be sleep disorders, as well as the appearance of rashes. In nursing infants, the symptomatology may not be expressed and be limited only by moody behavior, crying and increased body temperature.
Some children with lymphocytosis have an enlarged lymph node. Also, the spleen or liver can increase, because when the number of blood cells increases, the load on these organs increases.
Infectious disease of crumbs is often accompanied by lymphocytosis

What to do

After revealing a child's excess of the level of lymphocytes, you should contact the baby with a doctor. The doctor will assess the overall condition of the small patient and his age, take into account existing complaints, recent illnesses, drug use, and other blood test results. For example, about the presence of an active viral disease pediatrician will prompt certain symptoms, leukocytosis and an increase in ESR.

If a child has not only increased lymphocytes, but also monocytes, this will lead the doctor to think about a chronic viral infection. Also, with a protracted infectious process, children are referred for analysis, which determines activated B cells. If activated lymphocytes in a child's blood test exceed a normal rate, this may be a sign of an autoimmune process.

How to determine the type of infection using lymphocyte counts, see E. Komarovsky's video:

A pronounced leukocytosis with a high percentage of lymphocytes will be the reason for a more detailed examination of the immune system of the child. In order to find out whether a lymphocytosis reactive in a child( the so-called increase in lymphocytes due to a viral infection) or a tumor( also called malignant), the level of T and B lymphocytes is determined separately. If necessary, a bone marrow examination is prescribed.


Having learned why a child has lymphocytosis, the doctor will prescribe suitable therapy. In many cases, this change in the cellular composition of the blood simply indicates the active resistance of the child's immune system to the infectious disease .And therefore, no drugs that reduce the number of lymphocytes are required.

The child is provided with the correct sleep regime, sufficient rest, walking outdoors, full nutrition. This contributes to a quick recovery and normalization of well-being, supports the immunity of the baby and helps to normalize the number of lymphocytes in his blood.

Antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and other medicines are used as medications, and if a complication is added in the form of a bacterial infection, the child must be given antibiotics as well.
When leukocytosis, it is important to consult a pediatrician to exclude or start treatment of serious pathology
. If lymphocytosis is a sign of a tumor process, the doctor's tactics will be determined by the form of the tumor, its prevalence and activity. Such children are recommended bed rest and limited contact with other people. Most often they are prescribed chemotherapy, and in some cases - bone marrow transplantation.

Prevention of

To prevent the increase in lymphocytes in the blood of a child, parents should focus on strengthening the immune system of the daughter or son:

  • Provide the child a balanced diet.
  • Encourage moderate physical activity and exercise.
  • Dressing a child on the weather, avoiding hypothermia.
  • Do not allow the child to develop bad habits.
  • Every year to check blood for timely detection of diseases.