The feeding of a premature baby should be given special attention, since weight gaining by babies born before the term is one of the main tasks in nursing such babies.
If the mother did not manage to initiate breastfeeding, the baby needs to choose a mixture that can cover all the baby's nutritional needs in order to ensure a rapid addition of weight. And therefore, special nutrition is developed for premature babies, as well as for small babies. How does it differ from mixtures for children born on time and how to choose the best mixture for baby?
Premature babies are fed in the maternity hospital and in the hospital by such methods:
- Parenteral. The infant is fed nutrients through the veins, for example, glucose, solutions of proteins and vitamins.
- Through the probe. Such nutrition can be long( performed using an infusion pump) and batch( performed with a syringe).
- Breast milk. Mom can breastfeed a baby or give a baby a expressed milk from a bottle.
- From the bottle with a mixture. With such feeding, the baby is selected a special mixture.
Many babies immediately after birth are given full parenteral nutrition, and to support the work of the gastrointestinal tract to it gradually add enteral nutrition( through the probe).Its volume is slowly increased, eventually replacing the probe with a bottle. Babies weighing 1.8-2 kg are given food from the bottle, but in a situation with a weak sucking activity they return to the probe feeding in portions( via a syringe).
Features of mixtures for preterm
- The energy value of such mixtures is increased and averages 80 kcal per 100 ml.
- The amount of protein in the mixes for babies born before the term is increased to 1.9-2.6 g in 100 ml of the product.
- The ratio of protein fractions( casein to whey proteins) is as close as possible to the composition of breast milk and in most products is 40:60.
- The amount of fats in the mixtures is also increased to 3.9-4.3 g in 100 ml of the final mixture.
- Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids should be present in the fats of mixtures for prematurity, since they are synthesized in a limited number in immature babies.
- About 20-40% of the fat composition of the mixtures are medium chain triglycerides, which help in the assimilation of fats. These compounds also improve the absorption of zinc and calcium.
- Carbohydrates in mixtures for prematurely born babies are longer, while the amount of lactose is somewhat lowered to exclude a strong load on the digestive tract of babies. In some products lactose is replaced by dextrinmaltose or polysaccharides.
- L-carnitine, which is a vitamin-like compound important for the metabolism of fats, is added to all the mixtures.
- Adding nucleotides to the mixture helps to stimulate somatic growth, as well as strengthen the immune system. These compounds have a positive effect on the maturation of the intestine and the formation of the gastrointestinal microflora.
- The vitamin-mineral composition of the mixtures is adapted to the needs of a premature baby - they have more iron and calcium, more vitamins D, E and C. The ratio of copper to zinc is 10 to 1, and the ratio of calcium to phosphorus is 2 to 1.
- In someMixtures have food fibers in the form of galactooligosaccharides. They stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria.
- The osmolality of mixtures for early-born babies is quite high due to the high concentration of nutrients, so when the baby reaches a weight of 2.5-3 kg, it is recommended to transfer it to standard mixtures.
Advantages and features of
Optimum balanced product for prematurity.
Good calcium to phosphorus ratio.
High content of vitamin E, iron and calcium.
The composition contains nucleotides and prebiotics.
Sweetish taste, which is pleasant to kids.
Non-optimal ratio of zinc to copper.
Often causes the appearance of colic and constipation.
Distinguished by a unique composition of amino acids that promote the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system.
The optimum composition of carbohydrates.
Helps to normalize the rhythm of wakefulness and sleep.
Nucleotides are included in the composition.
Contains a lot of iodine.
Does not cause allergies.
Helps to cope with colic and constipation.
Contains little iron and zinc.
Contains palm oil.
There are no triglycerides with a medium chain.
Has a not very pleasant smell and taste.
Sometimes causes regurgitation.
Good fat composition.
Contains an increased amount of whey proteins( 70%).
Proteins in this mixture are partially hydrolyzed, so they are easier to digest.
Children eat with pleasure.
The mixture is classified as hypoallergenic.
Non-optimal ratio of copper to zinc.
There is palm oil in the composition.
Contains medium chain triglycerides.
Composed of many copper, iodine, vitamin A and vitamin E.
Does not contain palm oil.
It's hard to find on sale.
Sometimes it causes allergies.
The mixture is well adapted to the needs of toddlers with low weight.
It contains nucleotides.
The composition of vitamins in this mixture is optimal for preventing breathing disorders.
Contains quite a lot of maltodextrin.
The composition is well adapted for underweight children.
There are many easily digestible fats in the mixture.
The ratio of proteins is optimal.
Contains a lot of vitamin E and folic acid.
The osmolality is slightly increased.
In the composition there is palm oil.
Contains little calcium and iron, as well as phosphorus.
Differs good digestion.
Contains prebiotics, which improves the functioning of the digestive tract and strengthens the immune system.
The carbohydrate component is represented only by lactose.
Helps to normalize the stool and eliminate colic.
Sometimes causes constipation.
is characterized by low osmolality, so it does not harm the kidneys.
There is no palm oil in the composition.
Contains a lot of vitamin E and iron.
Does not cause allergies and digestive problems.
Can be prepared in several dilutions - from 67 kcal per 100 ml( standard dilution), from 81 kcal to 100 ml and from 40 kcal to 100 ml of the product.
The ratio of calcium to phosphorus is not optimal.
The maximum is close to the composition of female milk.
Does not contain sugar.
Taste is pleasant to kids.
Does not provoke colic and allergies.
Differs low calorie( only 65 kcal per 100 ml).
Non-optimal ratio of zinc to copper and phosphorus to calcium.
Occasionally causes constipation.
Weight on such a mixture is dialed slower.
The mixture is rich in iron.
It has a good composition of fats.
Caloric content is only 70 kcal per 100 ml.
A small amount of vitamins, iodine and calcium.
Not all children like the taste.
Overview of mixtures
Which mixture should I choose?
First of all, the weight of the child is taken into account, since there are mixtures recommended at weight less than 1800 g( Friso Pre, Nutrilon Pre 0, Similak special care). If a child weighs more than 1800 g, it can be given mixtures of Similak Neoshur, Nutrilon Pre 1, Nan Pre, Nutrilak Pre.
As for the rest, it's very difficult to say which infant formula will be best, because every baby reacts individually to food. For example, a single baby can cause constipation, and the same mixture does not interfere with the digestion of another child.
How much should the premature baby eat?
A premature baby should be fed 7-8 times a day with interruptions of about 3 hours. Calculating the volume of the mixture, first of all, take into account its calorific value.
Toddler should receive per day:
Age of crumbs
Calories per kilogram of weight
First day of
Second day of
Third day of
Fourth day of
Fifth to sixth day of
Seventh to ninth day of
Tenth to fourteenth day of
Fifteenth dayAnd further
. Feeding with special mixtures is continued until the baby gains a weight of 3000 g. Next, during the month, the baby is transferred to the usual donor mixtureChildren.
If it is necessary( the child was born deeply prematurely, poorly adds weight), in the ration of the baby one-two feeding with a mixture for premature babies may be left for several months.