Nasal bleeding mayBegin at any age, but in children under 10 years of age this trouble occurs more often than in adults. To some extent, this can be explained by the age features( thinner and sensitive mucous membrane, the proximity of the capillaries, their abundant nasal network), because of which bleeding can occur even with minor damage, for example, if the child bumps his nose or picks atNose to blood.
However, children's bleeding from the nasal cavity may be caused by more serious causes. Therefore, all parents should know why children can bleed, how to stop blood quickly, and how to not act.
Causes of nasal bleeding in children
Physicians note that blood from the nose
of a baby or preschooler goes five times more often than a teenage child or an adult. This may be one episode, and often repeated bleeding. Doctors call it the term "epistaxis".
The most common cause of this bleeding is the damage to the capillaries located in the lower part of the nasal septum. Thus the blood is allocated mainly from one nasal course.
To its appearance may result:
- Strong voltage. If a child sneezes or coughs, thin vessels in the nose can be damaged, which will lead to the appearance of blood. In infants, the cause of vascular damage can be strong crying.
- Viral or bacterial infection. With a common cold that caused an infectious agent, the mucosal cells become inflamed, and the sheath itself loosens up. Due to inflammation, the vessels are located closer to the surface and can bleed.
- Frequent use of drugs with vasoconstrictive action. Such drugs with regular long-term administration cause atrophy of the epithelium of the mucosa in the nose, because of which the shell becomes thinner and more easily damaged.
- Frequent use of tampons that stop nasal bleeding or clear the nose. The situation seems paradoxical - when the nose bleeds begin abundantly, the nasal passages should be tamped to squeeze the vessels of the mucosa, but with frequent bleeding, the cessation of blood circulation in the mucosa results in insufficient intake of oxygen and immunity cells. The result will be atrophy of the mucosa and repeated bleeding.
- External effects on the cells of the nasal mucosa. Examples of damaging factors can be burns and radiation sickness, as well as foreign objects in the nose, inhalation of poisonous substances and nose trauma.
- Hereditary disease. An example of a disease manifested by bleeding from the nasal cavity is hemophilia. With it, the blood clotting process is violated, and even with minor damage to blood vessels, the bleeding will be quite long.
- Partition deformation. This anatomical feature often provokes regular bleeding.
- Prolonged inhalation of dry hot air, for example, if the child is in a hot climate or in a heated room. The dried mucous membrane becomes thinner and more sensitive.
- Neoplasms in the nasal cavity. They can be benign( quite often there are angiomas, angiofibromas and polyps) or malignant. If they are damaged, blood is released from the child's nose.
- Blood coagulation problem. Deterioration of coagulability, which is manifested by frequent bleeding( including nasal), occurs in hepatitis, anemia, inadequate intake of vitamin C and routine, leukemia and other pathologies.
- High blood pressure. Such a pathology damages blood vessels, resulting in bleeding.
- Increased intracranial pressure, causing damage to small vessels in the nose.
- Bleeding from another location. Blood can be excreted from the nose and without its damage, for example, if the child has bleeding from the esophagus.
- Hormonal changes. In adolescent girls due to the restructuring of the hormonal background, there is often a swelling of the nasal mucosa due to a larger influx of blood.
Bleeding from the back of the nasopharynx
Most often( in 80% of cases) the blood begins to separate from the vessels of the anterior part of the nasal cavity and flows outward, frightening the child and parents. However, a more dangerous situation is bleeding, provoked by damage to the vessels in the back of the nasopharynx. This bleeding is harder to notice, therefore there is a risk of significant blood loss.
A child with a similar nosebleed with pharyngoscopy can detect drops or trickles of blood on the pharyngeal wall.
Other symptoms of these bleedings are:
- General weakness.
- Itching and tickling sensation in the nose.
- Noise in the ears. Dizziness and headaches.
- Appearance of the urge to vomit.
Severity of nasal bleeding
Depending on the severity of the nosebleed happens:
- Light. The lost volume of blood with such bleeding is small, and other symptoms may be absent or limited by the pallor of the skin, slight weakness, dizziness, dry mouth, tinnitus.
- Of moderate severity. In this situation, the child loses more blood, which affects his health, manifested by considerable weakness, thirst, marked dizziness, shortness of breath, palpitations, lower blood pressure. Sometimes with such bleeding, blue skin becomes blue.
- Heavy. This bleeding due to a significant loss of blood leads to a sharp decrease in pressure, child's retardation, severe tachycardia. If you do not provide medical assistance, a shock is possible.
What to do
In a single case of nosebleed, the child should provide first aid to the baby and monitor his condition, also paying attention to preventing new bleeding. If a child has blood at night from the nose, the baby has fallen and from swelling of the nose swelling or he has other symptoms of illness( for example, fever), a doctor's consultation is necessary.
Also to show the child to the pediatrician follows:
- Prolonged abundant discharge of blood from the nose.
- Appearance in the blood foam.
- Leaving with blood clear liquid.
- The presence of a child with blood, arterial hypertension or diabetes mellitus.
The doctor will examine the crumbs, measure the pressure and send for examinations( general blood test, coagulation analysis, biochemical and other tests), as well as for consultation with the ENT if there is a suspicion of curvature of the septum, damage to the nasal mucosa, foreign body or the child's bleedingFrom the back of the nasopharynx.
Depending on the cause of the discharge of blood from the nose, the child will be treated. For example, with erosion of the mucosa, cauterization with silver nitrate is used. Many children with nasal bleeding appoint a course of ascorutin and calcium preparations. If necessary, cryo- or laser therapy is used.
First aid at home
If the baby suddenly has blood from the nose, you need:
- Calm the baby.
- Tell your child to breathe with your mouth and explain that you can not swoop while you can not swallow blood.
- Wash the baby and remove the clots so that the affected mucous vessels shrink more effectively.
- Sit the baby or put the baby with a slightly raised head.
- Unbutton the collar or remove clothing from the baby that interferes with quiet breathing.
- Put a towel on the bridge of the neck or a towel wrapped in a towel or wrapped in ice towels.
- Insert into the nasal passages tampons soaked with hydrogen peroxide. If there is no peroxide or tampons next to each other, it is necessary to squeeze the nose, pressing its wings against each other.
- If after 10-20 minutes the bleeding does not stop, call an ambulance.
What can not be done
When nasal bleeding in children should not:
- Toss the child's head back. This often erroneous action of parents only increases the risk of getting blood into the respiratory tract and into the esophagus, provoking cough and vomiting reflex.
- Allow your child to actively move or talk.
- Allow the child to blow his nose.
What to do in case of nasal bleeding in infants
The most frequent discharge of blood in a nursing infant is triggered by dry mucous or strong screaming. If a child under the age of the nose began to bleed from the nose, you need to lift the baby so that blood does not fall into the throat. Then cold is applied to the nose of the baby, and if the bleeding is too abundant or after a cold compress it does not stop for 10 minutes, call an ambulance.
How to prevent nose bleeding from children
- The air in the child's room should be sufficiently moistened. To do this, it is best to use a special device called a "humidifier".
- Parents should ensure that the child does not put foreign objects in the nasal passages, and also does not put his fingers in his nose.
- Do not overuse the child, especially if he already had epistaxis. It is necessary to avoid sudden movements, heavy lifting, active games, long pastime in front of the TV or behind a computer.
- It is important to strengthen the immunity of the child, regularly walk on the street, encourage moderate physical activity, and enrich the baby's diet with all the vitamins necessary to maintain the integrity of blood vessels, especially ascorbic acid and vitamin P.
- It is necessary to visit regularly with a pediatrician's child in order to detect diseasesWhich the risk of nasal bleeding is increased.
- If the cause of the discharge of the blood is a runny nose, an allergy, hypertension or other illness, attention should be paid to the treatment of the underlying disease in order to prevent bleeding from the nasopharynx.