- 1. Physical parameters table up to year
- 2. From birth to 3 months
- 2.1. Physical features of
- 2.2. Neuropsychic development of
- 3. From 4 months to 6 months
- 3.1. Physical features of the
- 3.2. Neuropsychic development
- 4. From six months to 9 months
- 4.1. Physical features of
- 4.2. Neuropsychic development
- 5. From 10 months to 1 year
- 5.1.Physical features of
- 5.2. Neuropsychic development
- 6. The opinion of Dr. Komarovsky
All parents without exception worry about the health of their child. The issue of full-fledged physical, mental, neuropsychic development is especially troubling for parents in the first year of life. How does the child develop by months? We offer for consideration an approximate plan for the formation of the young: we estimate the psychophysical development of the child up to a year, the terms and norms for WHO.
Table of physical parameters of up to a year
To assess the rate of growth, weight gain and physical development of the baby, it is worth to get acquainted with the average conventional indicators of child development stages toof the year. However, we must not forget that all children have individual development schedules, exact compliance with the tables is not mandatory, minor deviations from the norms are allowed. Do not forget also that boys and girls differ slightly in their neuropsychological development, but if the child does not acquire the skills and development indicators normal for his age, it is necessary to consult a doctor. Table of physiological parameters of the child up to the year:
|Age, months||Height||Weight||head circumference,||cm Bosom, cm|
|Newborn||49,0 - 54,0||2,6 - 4,0||33,0 - 37,0||31, 0 to 35.9|
|1||52.0 to 55.0||3.0 to 4.3||35.8 to 37.2||34.0 to 36.0|
|2||55.0 to 57.0||4.5- 5.0||37.5 - 38.5||36.0 - 38.0|
|3||58.0 - 60.0||4.0 - 6.0||38.0 - 40.0||36.0 - 39, 0|
|4||60.0 - 63.0||4.5 - 6.5||38.0 - 40.0||36.0 - 40.0|
|5||63.0 - 67.0||6.5 - 7.5||37.5 - 42.2||37.0 - 42.0 65.0|
|6||-||69.0 7.5 - 7.8 42.0||-||43.8 42.0 - 67 45.0|
|7||, 0 - 71.0||8.0 - 8.8||43.8 - 44.2||45.0 - 46.0|
|8||71,0 -||72.0 8.4 - 9.4 44.2||-||45.2 46.0 - 47.0 72.0|
|9||-||73.0 9.4 - 10.0 45.2||-||46.3 46.5 - 47.5 73.0|
|10||-||74.0 9.6 - 10.5 46.0||-||47.0 47.0 - 48.0 74.0|
|11||- 75,||0 10.0 - 11.0 46.2||-||47.2 47.5 - 48.5 75.0|
|12||-||76.0 10.5 - 11.5 47.0||- 47.5||48,0 - 49,0|
So, how does a newborn baby grow during the first year? Consider the development of a child up to a year using a calendar divided by every 3 months from the birth of the baby.
Birth to 3 months
A newborn is born with advanced hearing and vision. There is a vivid manifestation of congenital reflexes: sucking, swallowing, blinking and grabbing the child can from the first minutes of life. However, until the baby is unable to turn over. The newborn from the position on the tummy can not lift the head, but the instinct of self-preservation works - the head turns on the cheek.
The baby is able to hold the head for a few seconds, tries to lift it when lying on the tummy. In a month there is a response to sounds and sharp movements, expressed in involuntary dilution of the handles and their subsequent pressing against the body. You can also see a spontaneous imitation of walking.
The breastfish lifts and holds the head "standing" 1 - 1.5 minutes, and from the position on the tummy, it can lift not only the head, but also the chest. He pays attention to sounds and bright lights by turning his head and looking attentively. There is an intensive development of the vestibular apparatus. The child grabs and holds moving objects.
For 3 months the baby should hold the head well for 1 to 3 minutes. From a lying position on the abdomen can be raised, resting on the elbows. He starts to turn over, spin, change position, but in the movements there is still no clear coordination. He watches with interest toys, draws pens to them. He starts to put his fingers in his mouth, grab and pull the sheet.
|Month||Movements and skills||Vision||Rumor|
|1||Handles and legs are bent, movements are poorly coordinated. Everything is built on unconditional reflexes. Especially pronounced sucking and grasping reflexes. By the end of the month can turn his head.||It can take a few minutes to keep your face or toy in sight. Can follow the eyes of an arc-moving toy( the so-called "automatic tracking").||The mucous fluid in the tympanic membrane gradually resolves, resulting in better hearing. The baby listens to the voice and the rattle.|
|2||Active movements develop: pulls the handles to the sides, turns the head. In the position on the abdomen can for 5 seconds. Raise your head. Improved hand movements: 2-3 seconds. Holds the rattle, strikes it.||Smoothly monitors moving objects for 10-15 seconds. Fixes a look at the toy / face for 20-25 seconds. Able to perceive objects three-dimensionally.||Focuses on sounds 5-10 seconds. And turns his head toward the sounds of a rattle and a voice.|
|3||Within 30 seconds. Holds the head and hands in an adult, and in tech.1 minute - lying on his stomach. In this position, it rises on the handles, resting on the elbows. When the baby is held under the arms, it rests against the surface of the feet, the legs are straightened. There is a general motor "animation": it can flex, becoming a "bridge" and falling onto the crib. The grasping reflex is transformed into a conscious grasp.||Interestingly( not automatically) watching an arc-moving toy. It is considered about 5 minutes. Their pens. He is interested in all nearby objects( up to 60 cm from the eyes).||The "localization" of the sound is formed: the child first takes his eyes to the side of the sound, and then turns the head. He begins to react poorly to loud sharp sounds: he freezes, frowns, and then cries.|
|1||By the end of the month she smiles back at her mother, calms herself down with tender intonations. He listens to the voices and knits joyfully at the knobs in response to a loud speech. Gradually formed a "complex of animation" - a reaction to a loved one.||Pronounces guttural sounds: eh, k-x, gee.||The second stage of sensorimotor intelligence. The baby adapts to the surrounding world, there is an interest in objects, a coordinated movement of pens and eyes develops.|
|2||The child responds with a smile to address him, kneels with knobs.||In the conversation there are sounds of the initial stage of the walk: ag-to-x, to-xx. The scream acquires various intonations.||Interest in external objects increases, visual-orientation reactions improve.|
|3||The revitalization complex is manifested at 100% -the first conscious act of behavior, an attempt to interact with an adult "eye to eye."The revitalization complex marks the beginning of the infancy stage.||Vowel sounds and their different combinations appear: aaa, ae, ay, a-gu.||Interest in the environment becomes selective and conscious.|
From 4 months to 6 months
When in a reclining position on the back, the baby lifts the head. If you put on the legs, he firmly rests on them. He starts to sit, can easily turn over from the back on his tummy. Freely lifts the body and rests on the palms when lying on the tummy. He carefully watches the objects, can grab them. Playing with rattles.
A kid can sit, but his back does not even hold properly, he can stand on legs, if you hold it by the handles. Makes first attempts to turn from the tummy to the back. Long keeps in the handle an interesting subject. He recognizes his parents, begins to fear strangers. According to Komarovsky, the baby already understands various vocal intonations, begins to distinguish and understand the emotions of the mother.
At this stage the child can already sit. He himself keeps a smooth back, easily turns in all directions. With little help from an adult, you can stand on your feet and try to walk. He starts to get up on all fours and in this way to move. Already actively waves with toys, raises fallen objects.
There are also noticeable changes in speech:
- begins to express the first requests;
- the walk is replaced by simple babble sounds "ma", "na", "ba".
|Month||Motion and skills||Vision||Hearing|
|4||He turns on his side, makes attempts to turn over. Holds toys well, pulls them in your mouth. During feeding, touches the chest or bottle handles, trying to hold.||Recognizes the loved ones, smiling back, recognizes himself in the mirror. Watches the toy for about 3 minutes.||Freezes at the sound of music. Turn the head to the sound source. Distinguishes voices.|
|5||When lying on the back of the crumb tries to lift the head and shoulders( as if making attempts to get up).In the supine position, it rises, leaning on the hands of the straight arms. You can sit for a while, holding both of your feet with your hands. For a long time he studies subjects by touch, pulls them into his mouth. From the skills: eating a spoonful of half-thick food, drinking water from a cup.||Distinguishes close and unfamiliar people. He follows the toy for 10-15 minutes.||Distinguishes intonation of speakers. Surely turns all the body to the sound source.|
|6||Turns over from the tummy to the back. Practices crawling, with the help of pulling on your hands. Sits with support. Steadily stands if the adult supports under the mouse. Surely gets and seizes objects, shifts the toy from one hand to another. Can hold the bottle with one or two hands.||Visual acuity develops, very small objects become interesting.||Listens to whispers and other quiet sounds. Sings to the beat of the music.|
|4||Really laughs, answers with a smile at a smile. Reacts to tickling. It requires attention.||Gulit, pronounces chains of vowel sounds, the first syllables appear.||Begins the 3rd stage of sensorimotor intelligence - the implementation of targeted actions. There is an understanding of cause and effect relationships. A reaction to everything new is developing.|
|5||Wants to participate in communication - tries to attract attention by all means."Communicates" with other children with pleasure.||There is a melodious walk. Uses vowel sounds: aa, ee, oo, ay, maa, eu, haa, etc.||is not only interested in nearby objects, but also at a distance of up to 1 m. Understands that he has other parts besides his handles.|
|6||Begins to experience true love and affection for the adult who brings him up. He expects approval and praise from him, thus, communication acquires a situational and business character.||Speaks individual babbling syllables. In the "vocabulary" is already about 30-40 sounds.||sets goals and chooses the means to solve them. For example, to get one toy, you need to push the other.|
From 6 months to 9 months
The kid can easily and quickly crawl on all fours, sit and sit for a long time. In the sitting position, it straightens and bends. Holding on to the furniture, can stand on his knees, with the support of adults can stand and step over. He is interested in his mirror image. Can point the eyes at large objects, called adults.
According to the calendar of development, at 8 months the child can sit on his own and even stand on his feet. Begins to play in the "ladushki", imitating the clapping of hands. I am pleased to try to take the first steps with the help of adults. Mimic movement of the face acquires a rich variety. Kid mimicry expresses interest, surprise, fright.
Easily finds the object of interest and persistently tries to reach it. Spends a lot of time in games - for a long time can treat toys, knock them, throw.
Becoming on the legs, refuses support. He likes to walk, leaning on furniture, trying to get up on his feet from any position. Begins climbing on a hill - boxes, benches, pillows. At 9 months, motor skills become more complicated, the kid can collect small parts of toys, sort out the designer, move the machines.
Understands and can fulfill a simple request, such as "give the ball," "wave your hand."For games, he chooses a sitting position, easily and quickly remembers new words. I like to look for fallen or hidden objects. It responds when his name is named. Begins to distinguish words not only by intonation, but also by meaning. Can sort objects by shape, color, size.
|7||Can sit without support, turn from back to belly and back. Actively crawls on all fours. Favorite action with objects / toys is to throw. He reaches for the toy himself, picks it up, shifts, wags, knocks it on the surface.||Surely drinks from a cup( from the hands of an adult), tries to hold it. Eats with a spoon. If the mother gives a drying or cracker, then the child takes a long time to "bust" this piece.|
|8||Standing on its own feet, holding on to the support. With the support of an adult he steps over. He sits and lies, crawls a lot.||If he sees his "own" cup from an adult, then he pulls the pens. He holds a piece of bread in his hand, eats it himself. You can start to teach the baby to the pot.|
|9||With one hand on the support, you can perform many different actions: go to an adult step by step, grab a free hand for another support, etc. Surely sits for 10-15 minutes. Actively crawls.||Drinks from a cup, holding it( the cup is fixed in the hands of an adult).If the child was started to accustom to the pot, then he can confidently sit on it without any whims.|
|7||Attempts to be the center of attention. Now caresses and kisses - not the main thing( it can turn away, be removed), and important is a joint game and manipulation of toys.||Actively babbles. Already can pronounce clear slogosochetaniya: ma-ma, ba-ba-ba, pa-pa-pa, a la-la, etc.||An understanding of the cause-effect relationships is developing, for example, throws a toy and looks where it will land;If hungry, looks toward the kitchen( where he is fed).|
|8||Becomes closed from strangers( a crisis of 8 months), is ready to communicate only with very close ones, while others are worried and crying.||Speaks syllables and slogosochetany: ah, a la-la, he, a-dyat, a de de, a-ba-ba, etc.||The fourth stage of sensorimotor intelligence comes: targeted actions are developing. The child is studying everything and exploring.|
|9||Tests a whole range of emotions from anger and fear to joy and surprise. Strives for communication with an adult, attracting him to their activities.||In the speech there are first indicative words, understandable only to relatives. He understands the words-prohibitions( "impossible"), teachings( "show how. ..", "kiss my mother," etc.)||The child separates himself from the adult, but perceives himself as the "center of the universe".Long-term memory( can remember the subject) and working memory develops.|
From 10 months to 1 year
After 10 months the child without help gets on his feet and starts walking. Begins to step over with the support of one pen. Can take a small object with your fingers, gets upset when you take your favorite toys. Often and consciously imitates the movements of adults, can open-close, raise-throw, hide-find. The child says simple monosyllabic words.
The kid is intensively developing. Basic movement skills are developed well. Can show many items( toys, furniture, body parts, animals).Understands and fulfills most simple requests, reluctance or denial expresses a wobble.
After 11-12 months begins a difficult stage of development. Often boys develop a little slower than girls. There is the ability to walk alone. He can come up if he's called by his first name. Can squat and straighten without support. Raises objects from the floor without sitting down. Can perform a difficult task: close the door, bring the toy from another room.
Is interested in the process of undressing, bathing. He speaks about ten simple words. In a year the child watches with interest people, cars. More detailed information you can on the Internet, after watching the video of Komarovsky on the correct development of children from 0 to a year.
|10||May stand alone for a while without support and support.||All previously acquired skills are reinforced.|
|11||It stands well from the support for about 5 seconds, balancing with handles, the legs are located at the same time. He himself tries to take the first steps, with the support of an adult is confident.||All previously acquired skills are fixed.|
|12||Goes alone( up to 3 meters).Freely crouches and rises, bends down and raises an object / toy from the floor. Can climb up the stairs.||Sam drinks from a cup, without the support of an adult. Confidently holds a spoon, drives her on a plate.|
|10||The child develops a full attachment to the people important to him. He is in good contact with other children.||Repeats for adults separate syllables. Communicates with relatives in a language that is understandable only to them. He understands the words: "give. ..", "where. ..?".||Qualitatively all the sensations are complicated: hearing, smell, taste, tactile perception.|
|11||Selectively refers to other children, in general, enjoys communicating with them, babbling. Can take the toys of another.||Speaks 1-2 words. It pronounces onomatopoeia, such as "bi-bi", "av-av".Can understand and fulfill the requests of an adult( for example, "roll the machine", "feed the doll").||Learns how to manage your actions, mentally organizes all incoming information from outside.|
|12||Experiencing the widest range of emotions, based on the feeling of "separation" from an adult( because already can move independently).||Repeats syllables for adults. Denotes individual concepts and objects with babbling words. Without displaying the object / toy understands what is at stake. Can fulfill orders, such as "show. .", "find. ..", "put in place. ..", "bring it".||The 5th stage of development of sensorimotor intelligence begins: it understands the categories of objects and phenomena( for example, animals, furniture, food).Arbitrary attention begins to form.|
https: //www.youtube.com/ watch? V = Dzs1dLmRs5E
The opinion of Dr. Komarovsky
Popular today, Dr. Komarovsky intelligently and intimately talks about children in his book "The Beginning of Life: Your Child from Birth to 1 Year", as well as in his video lessons. Of course, the main emphasis is on pediatric issues, but apart from that, books and lectures can be learned about:
- principles for carapace care;
- feeding and feeding of children( according to WHO, and also according to the author's method of complementary feeding);
- key stages of growth and development( when the baby has to sit, crawl, stand and walk).
https: //www.youtube.com/ watch? V = R5Pdo2mpAPM