Intrauterine hypoxia of the fetus - causes, symptoms and consequences. How to determine the fetal hypoxia. How to avoid fetal hypoxia

During the entire pregnancy, the expectant mother lives with the hope that her baby will be born healthy. But sometimes something goes wrong, and the incomprehensible diagnosis of "hypoxia", delivered to the baby even before the birth, completely knocks the woman out of balance. However, in most cases, the help of qualified specialists, adequate treatment and confident mood of the mother can direct the development of the situation in a positive direction. About the symptoms, consequences and prevention of fetal hypoxia, read the article.

Content

The term "hypoxia" means an oxygen deficiency, respectively, the diagnosis of "fetal fetal hypoxia" indicates that the unbo

rn child is in dire need of this priceTh gas. Respiratory organs of the baby, which are in the growth stage, have nowhere to take oxygen, and if they managed to form at the time of the development of hypoxia, they can not function fully.

Intrauterine hypoxia of the fetus is a serious pathology, which, under certain circumstances, manifests itself not only in the first trimester, but also on the eve of birth. Moreover, the lack of oxygen sometimes becomes a real obstacle to a successful delivery.

Fetal hypoxia: types of

The features of the pathological state gave a basis to divide it into two types.

Chronic fetal hypoxia

This diagnosis hides the continued existence of the fetus in conditions of oxygen deficiency. This condition develops if the pregnant woman for some reason did not register on time( and, naturally, was deprived of medical supervision), or because of untimely detection and therapy of pathology. In this state, the fetus may be present for several days, weeks or months.

Consequences of this type of hypoxia for the fetus at the beginning of gestation are all kinds of disorders in the laying of organ systems, as well as the delay in the formation of the embryo as a whole. Chronic infringement on late terms of pregnancy threatens with even more dangerous complications for the kid. Among them:

  • serious CNS disorders;
  • anomalies of physical ontogenesis;
  • growth gap;
  • low ability to adapt to the external world of the newborn;
  • refusal from eating, anxiety and nervous system disorders in the infant.

Acute fetal hypoxia

This type of disorder is characterized by sudden development and may occur during gestation, as well as during labor. This violation can not be corrected by therapeutic interventions, since it lasts only a few minutes or a limited number of hours. Pregnant women immediately need emergency delivery, otherwise the consequences of such hypoxia of the fetus for the child are the most unfavorable - the slightest delay will cost him his life. Acute and prolonged lack of oxygen irretrievably suppresses the activity of the fetal brain and is the result of intrauterine asphyxia.

Even if the baby has time to take out on time, full of confidence in a good state of his health will not. Sometimes the effects of hypoxia and fetal asphyxia leave the child for 5 to 6 years of his life. In other cases, a complex of internal disorders on the basis of hypoxia makes the child dependent on constant treatment until the end of life.

Than fetal hypoxia is dangerous

Pathology can cause all sorts of diseases in a child. Let's list the most serious and severe consequences of pathology:

  1. Cardinal disorders in the area of ​​the brain.
  2. Fluid accumulation in the brain tissues.
  3. Droplet of the brain.
  4. Epilepsy.
  5. Anomalies in the development of internal organs.
  6. Hemorrhage in the brain.
  7. Children's cerebral palsy.

Intrauterine hypoxia of the fetus during pregnancy in case of unsuccessful circumstances precludes children's disability, mental retardation and poor ability to adapt in society.

Causes of fetal hypoxia

Factors that can in some way "block" the access of a valuable substance to the fetus are many. The initiation of chronic hypoxia can:

  • a woman's disease related to the respiratory, hematopoietic and cardiovascular system;
  • pathology of fetal development( infection, incompatibility with the mother by Rhesus blood);
  • abnormal location of the umbilical cord( for example, it fell out, was pinched on the ground of fetal presentation, knotted in a knot), which disrupts the blood flow;
  • severe and prolonged course of toxicosis;
  • excessive volume of amniotic fluid;
  • pregnancy with two or more fruits;
  • miscarriage;
  • stay pregnant under stressful conditions;
  • depression in a future mother( being in a depressed state, a woman breathes less often, so the baby does not breathe enough together with her);
  • taut cord umbilical cord cervicalis;
  • placental abruption, rapid or too prolonged labor;
  • is not an appropriate anesthetic during labor.

Hypoxia of the fetus and the newborn

The dangerous factors that we discussed above can cause not only internal disturbances, but asphyxiated baby at the time of delivery. A newborn baby is considered to be within 7 days after birth. Now the so-called strength test goes through all the organs of a small person. If before the birth of crumbs Mom was diagnosed with "hypoxia", the same trouble can await the baby after birth.

When a child suffocates in a mother's womb, he tries to fill this deficit with all his might, so he begins to breathe through a hole in the glottis. Consequently, there enter foreign substances in the form of mucus, blood and amniotic fluid, which in childbirth will clog the respiratory organs of the child and cause asphyxiation - quite simply, strangle the baby. That's why these children are very closely watched in the first days of their lives.

The severity of fetal hypoxia is divided into moderate and severe. The child's condition is assessed after birth, being guided by the standard Apgar scales. The scale consists of five indicators, each of which is scored from 0 to 2 points.

When the baby has just been born, his condition is immediately subjected to a general assessment, and after 5 minutes they are examined again. If a child "scores" from 8 to 10 points, he is considered healthy, that is, he did not have hypoxia during childbirth. An assessment of 4-7 points indicates a moderate hypoxia, and a score of 0 to 3 points gives doctors a reason to talk about severe hypoxia and strangulation of a newborn.

Symptoms of fetal hypoxia

Fetal hypoxia can not be diagnosed early in pregnancy without special equipment( Doppler and ultrasound) - the fetus is still very small, so it can not "tell" the mother how bad it is.

An effective way out of the situation are regular and unscheduled surveys. The reason for visiting a female consultation is the chronic illness of a pregnant woman and her unsatisfactory state of health.

As the tummy increases, the mother must take on the constant control of the child's movement. To suspect the development of pathology on its own will help the technique of 10 movements. It consists in the following: waking up in the morning, my mother begins to count how many times within a day her baby starts to move. The wiggles are divided into series and there must be at least 10 such series per day. For example, you feel how the baby "knocks" inside and so continues 1 - 2 minutes - this is the first series, after a while the movements are repeated - the second series and so on. If such a series is less than 10, this is a clear sign of fetal hypoxia.

On acute intrauterine hypoxia indicates turbidity of amniotic fluid, which is determined by laboratory analysis.

How to determine the fetal hypoxia

At the heart of all effective methods of diagnosis is a complete examination of the future mother by a doctor during a scheduled or unscheduled inspection. A gynecologist will listen to the heartbeat of the fetus and determine its frequency. Delayed heartbeat crumbs - an occasion for additional examination.

To study the child's heart rhythm more accurately, use the method of cardiotocography - ECG for the fetus.

Symptoms of fetal hypoxia in CTG are as follows:

  • number of cardiac strokes reduced or absent altogether;
  • too frequent heartbeat of the child against the background of his own wiggling and involuntary tone of the uterus.

Another effective diagnostic method of hypoxia is intrauterine( doppler) ultrasound, which evaluates the overall picture of blood flow in the uterus. Also, the diagnostician will certainly attest to hypoxia of the fetus on the usual ultrasound if it detects anomalies in the development of the placenta, its too rapid formation or aging, excessively thin or thick walls.

In addition, the presence of hypoxia will help confirm blood tests. The pathology will be indicated by a high level of enzymes in the blood, fat oxidation products, etc.

Treatment of fetal hypoxia

It is possible to hope for getting rid of pathology if oxygen deficiency was detected in a timely manner and the patient does not have indications for emergency delivery through cesarean section.

What to do with fetal hypoxia, excites every pregnant woman who heard such a diagnosis. The mother needs calmness and a willingness to cooperate with the attending physician in everything. To begin with, doctors will try to block the effect of the illness or condition of the mother, which has triggered the development of complications.

On the degree of severity of oxygen fasting depends on what treatment will be - inpatient or outpatient. The main points of the therapeutic program are the following conditions:

  1. Calm and bed rest.
  2. Taking medications that stimulate unhindered access of oxygen to the baby.
  3. Consumption of water saturated with oxygen.

Fetal hypoxia and childbirth

Fetal hypoxia can manifest itself not only in late pregnancy, but also during labor. At the birth of a child, doctors regularly assess the nature of his heartbeat. The cause for concern is the development of increased or slower heart activity.

The severity of bradycardia and tachycardia during labor can vary. At the beginning of labor, the fetal deficit is indicated by a bradycardia of about 100 beats per minute, and in the second period - 98 strokes. When hypoxia as a reaction to every fight, there is a decrease in the frequency of cardiac strokes to 50 times per minute.

How to avoid fetal hypoxia

The responsibility for the probability of developing intrauterine oxygen starvation in a child is largely due to his mother. In order not to face such a serious complication during pregnancy, a woman should lead the most correct way of life. Briefly, we list the main measures to prevent fetal hypoxia during pregnancy. Briefly, because you probably will not learn anything new - everyone knows about the rules of a healthy lifestyle. So, the future mother needs:

  • once and for all to part with bad habits( for example, forget what cigarettes are);
  • spend a lot of time in the fresh air. Remember that the ideal place for walking is away from busy trails;
  • to compose a useful and balanced diet with the indispensable presence of iron-containing products;
  • come to all planned examinations, and also visit a women's consultation unscheduled, if something is bothering;
  • inform the gynecologist about all chronic diseases;
  • monitor the quality of your breathing. If there are any signs of anxiety( for example, dyspnea), immediately consult a doctor for an explanation of the situation;
  • with the permission of the doctor to master the complex of respiratory gymnastics and regularly perform it;
  • get enough sleep and enough rest during the day.

No matter how strange it may sound, but during pregnancy, a woman should think and take care not about the baby growing inside her, but about herself. The future mother, in fact, is a mirror that projects all the features of her well-being on the fetus. The healthier a woman is, the more favorable conditions will be for her baby for growth and development. Be healthy!