Pregnancy is a surprisingly planned, carefully thought out nature process, as a result of which a small copy of the father and mother appears on the light. The course of pregnancy depends on both external factors, internal factors, and the lifestyle and psychological mood of the future mother. Unfortunately, such a diagnosis as fetoplacental insufficiency of the fetus
is quite common today, and this is an extremely dangerous disease that can lead to very disastrous consequences. What is it and how to fight it?
- placental insufficiency in pregnancy
- reasons placental insufficiency
- Classification of placental insufficiency in pregnant
- placental insufficiency
- the aging of placental insufficiency at its downstream
- placental insufficiency: degree
- Signs of placental insufficiency placental insufficiency Diagnostics
- placental insufficiency: Preventive treatment
- fetoplacental insufficiency
- Fetoplacental insufficiency: consequences of
- Video "Fetal hypoxia"
Fetoplacental insufficiency in pregnancy
The placenta is a body that occurs in the female body only during pregnancy, fully fulfilling its functions from the 16th week of pregnancy:
- Gas exchange - delivers oxygen to oxygenfrom the blood of the mother through the utero-placental-fruit system and removes carbon dioxide to the mother back to the blood.
- Delivery to the fetus of nutrients necessary for its life, growth and development.
- Synthesis of hormones needed to maintain pregnancy - progesterone, hCG, estrogens, etc.
- Protection of the fetus from exposure to harmful substances that somehow got into the body of a future mother. However, this function is limited and misses many medications, alcohol and nicotine, for example.
In simple terms, fetoplacental insufficiency is understood as a violation of the functions of the placenta and its structure. By and large, this is a malfunction of blood flow between the mother, placenta and fetus, and it can lead to a delay in development, intrauterine hypoxia or even death of the crumbs - it all depends on the time and severity.
Causes of fetoplacental insufficiency
Fetoplacental insufficiency of FPN is common in expectant mothers quite often, and it is not surprising: there are a lot of reasons for calling it.
- Pathologies of the hypothalamus and adrenal gland, thyroid disease, diabetes, asthma, kidney disease, heart disease, arterial hypertension - all this can lead to the development of FPN in expectant mothers.
- Anemia indicates iron deficiency in the maternal and fetal blood flow, and FPN can develop as a consequence. Problems with clotting of blood can provoke the appearance of clots in the vessels of the placenta and disrupt the placenta blood flow.
- Infections that worsen during pregnancy can easily provoke FPN, as viruses and bacteria can damage the placenta. In the early stages of pregnancy, an obvious consequence may be miscarriage, and beginning with the second trimester, the consequences will depend on the cause that caused FPN and the characteristics of its course.
- Uterine pathologies can cause FPN, for example, myometrium or endometriosis. Myoma is also a risk factor, in particular, in primiparous women from 35 years of age.
- Gestosis, pregnancy with more than one baby, placenta praevia, pelvic presentation of the fetus, Rh-conflict - all this can easily cause the appearance of FPN.
If most of the factors that can provoke the appearance of FPN do not depend on the future mother, then you should know about the minority that can be influenced. Abortion in the past, smoking, drugs or alcohol - all this also applies to risk factors, and the development of FPN is just one of the possible turns of events.
Classification of fetoplacental insufficiency in pregnant women
Fetoplacental insufficiency is distinguished by many features. When it arose, how it flows, what specific violations it entailed.
Fetoplacental insufficiency by timing of onset
- Primary. It occurs before the 16 weeks term and is associated with a malfunction in the implantation and placental processes.
- Secondary. Occurs after the 16th week under the influence of external factors.
Fetoplacental insufficiency in its course
- Acute fetoplacental insufficiency may occur at any gestation period or even at the time of delivery. There is a violation of the gas exchange function of the placenta, which leads to hypoxia of the fetus and can kill it. Acute FPN can be associated with an abruption or a placenta infarction, thrombosis of its vessels.
- Chronic fetoplacental insufficiency. Most often occurs in the second trimester of pregnancy, but clearly manifests itself in the third. It is a consequence of circulatory disorders in the utero-placental circle.
With obstetric fetoplacental insufficiency obstetrics and gynecology collide more often than with acute. And here you can select 4 forms:
- Compensated. Does not affect the health and development of the fetus, pathological changes are insignificant, they are compensated by protective adaptive mechanisms. If the doctor in time diagnoses this type of FPN and corrects the management of pregnancy, the child will be born absolutely healthy.
- Decompensated. Pathological changes disrupt compensatory mechanisms, as a result of which pregnancy can not develop normally. Consequences may be fetal hypoxia, a delay in development, a violation of the heart and even death in the womb.
- The subcompensated form of FPN also disrupts the body's defenses and jeopardizes the normal course of pregnancy. Fetal lag in development and the emergence of all sorts of complications - these are the consequences.
- Critical. The most terrible and severe form of FPN, in which fetal death is inevitable due to the appearance of morpho-functional changes in the fetoplacental complex.
degree Depending on the type of circulatory disturbance, FPN is divided into 4 stages:
- Fetoplacental insufficiency of 1 degree. Subdivisions of degree 1a - deficiency of uteroplacental blood flow and 1b - fetoplacental. Fetoplacental insufficiency of the 2nd degree. Characterizes the violation of uteroplacental and placental-placental blood flow.
- Fetoplacental insufficiency of the third degree. Critical violation of the placental blood flow either with retention of the utero-placental blood flow, or with a violation.
Symptoms of fetoplacental insufficiency
Because several types of FPN are known to medicine, which we discussed in some detail above, it would be logical to assume that the signs depend on the particular species to which FPN is related.
- For example, if there is no chronic compensated form of symptoms at all, and this diagnosis can be made only by resorting to a modern medical examination - ultrasound.
- Acute or chronic decompensated FPN can indicate a sharp fetal movement with a subsequent decrease in activity. If the doctor notices during the next examination insufficient growth of the tummy and intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus, then this can also speak of a decompensated FPN.
- If a woman has noticed bloody discharge, then this is definitely an alarming and dangerous symptom that can talk about placental abruption and the beginning of premature birth.
Diagnosis of fetoplacental insufficiency
Since the cause of the onset of FPN is indeed a mass, a complex examination of the future mother is required to accurately diagnose it.
- To begin with, all the information about possible diseases of the future mother, capable of provoking FPN to determine it in one or another risk group, is collected. If there are complaints about bloody discharge, tone of the uterus, increased activity of crumbs, this will cause the doctor to think about a possible FPN.
- A gynecologist conducts a regular examination of a pregnant woman, measuring the circumference of her growing tummy and the height of the womb bottom - according to this information it is possible to determine how normally the baby is developing.
- If a future mother has any complaints, she refers to a high risk group, the doctor will monitor her more closely, appointing the next examinations or tests. Periodically, he can put the patient on a chair to assess the nature of her secretions and the collection of material for detailed study, if there is a need for it.
- Modern ultrasound devices greatly facilitate the activity of medical workers, allowing in the shortest time to confirm these or other diagnoses. Thanks to them, you can also look at the developing baby, compare the performance of his life with the norm, assess development with your own eyes, measure all the necessary parameters, assess the maturity of the placenta.
- To confirm the FPI held phonocardiography cardiotocography and for analysis of the fetal heart: to hypoxia may indicate arrhythmia, bradycardia or tachycardia.
- Doppler - another very important kind of research is carried out in conjunction with ultrasound to assess uterine blood flow, blood flow in the vessels of the umbilical cord, uterus and placenta of the fruit. Abnormal rates indicate FPN of one type or another, and this allows time to take measures and adjust the management of pregnancy.
Fetoplacental insufficiency: treatment of
There is no specific treatment regimen in patients diagnosed with fetoplacental insufficiency. After all, the reasons that can cause it, the mass, and sometimes they can be at once several and in different combinations. Therefore, it is extremely dangerous to prescribe some kind of treatment to yourself, even if a friend with the same diagnosis had helped her in due time. Before taking any action, the doctor should carefully study the history, carry out a series of analyzes and studies.
With a compensated form of chronic failure, treatment is usually performed on an outpatient basis, since only this level does not threaten the life and development of the fetus. In all other cases, the hospitalization of a pregnant woman and active medical activities are necessary.
Prevention of fetoplacental insufficiency
Today we can note a good trend in relation to such a thing as "Pregnancy Planning".More and more couples are consciously aware of this, understanding the importance and realizing their own responsibility to each other and to the future baby.
Only by planning your pregnancy, only having passed the necessary examinations and having passed the appropriate tests, it will be possible to say with certainty: "We did everything to make our child born healthy"!After knowing in advance whether the parents belong to a particular risk group, you can predict the course of pregnancy, correct it in time, cure hidden infections, in short, do everything to make diagnoses like FPN simply did not occur. Prevention is always better and safer than treatment!
Of course, an unplanned pregnancy is still a very, very frequent event, and in this case, the sooner the future mother goes to the doctor, the better it will be for her and the unborn baby. It is necessary to pass all the examinations at the appointed time, take tests, show the doctor-gynecologist as often as he deems necessary. Ideally, even at the stage of pregnancy planning, or at least from the day the test showed the second strip, you should give up alcohol, cigarettes and other bad habits. They are already poisoning the human body, and can cause such irreversible harm to the baby, that this is even scary to think about. A good healthy dream of a future mother should be at least 8 hours a day, daily walking on fresh air should be as much as possible. No nerves, stress, abuse - all this in your hands, most importantly, set a goal and clearly follow it.
Fetoplacental insufficiency: consequences of
And the consequences of FPN may be the most unpredictable: a child may appear absolutely healthy or with serious complications, or even die in the womb of the mother. The diagnosis is quite common, because every future parents need to do their best to make the pregnancy go well. It, like any grandiose and responsible event, must be planned, mother to take care of herself, and her father to protect her mother. With such a positive attitude and careful attitude towards each other, everything will necessarily go smoothly, and very soon the world will hear the scream of another little man.