Vaccinations before pregnancy are an important part of her planning. In this article, we will try to figure out what diseases a woman can protect herself and her unborn child.
- Pregnancy woman's
- Pregnancy planning: necessary tests
- What vaccinations should be done before pregnancy
- Rubella vaccine
- Vaccine for chickenpox
- Mumps vaccine
- Vaccination against hepatitis B
- Inoculation against measles during pregnancy
- Vaccination against influenza
- InoculationsFrom tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis
- Vaccinations during pregnancy. Video
Features of the immunity of a pregnant woman
Prepare for the conception of a child should be in advance, at least six months before the expected date of fertilization. It's no secret that disease prevention saves time, money and health, especially when it comes to pregnancy. The fact is that treating most illnesses during child bearing is quite problematic, since a future mother can not use man
Unfortunately, not everyone remembers what illnesses he had had in childhood and acquired immunity to them, and how long he had been vaccinated against certain diseases. To find out which vaccines should be made pregnant, it is necessary to conduct a series of studies on the presence of certain antibodies in the blood.
Pregnancy planning: the necessary analyzes of
Women who are responsibly approaching the issue of conception should conduct a series of tests that will help to make a complete picture of her health status and also will help to cure or prevent certain diseases. As a rule, future mothers are advised to be examined by a therapist, dentist, endocrinologist and ENT doctor. The list of necessary analyzes can be made such:
- A general blood test that will help to determine the possible presence of inflammations or any diseases in the body, as well as to reveal a hemoglobin deficiency in the blood. Note that anemia is a common problem among pregnant women, and this condition has a property to worsen with the course of pregnancy. Therefore, it is better to raise the level of hemoglobin to the required parameters even before the onset of conception.
- A blood test for RW is a method to determine the presence of syphilis in the body.
- An analysis of the Rh factor of blood is also mandatory. If the mother and father of the child have a different Rh factor, then there is a risk of complications of pregnancy, because between the blood of a woman and the fetus, there may be Rh-conflict. Fortunately, modern medicine can reduce possible risks by injecting immunoglobulin during pregnancy.
- Before the conception of a child, it is also necessary to examine the blood for HIV infection and viral hepatitis B and C.
- In a woman planning a pregnancy, the gynecologist will necessarily take a smear on the microflora of the vagina and for the presence of genito-urinary infections. Such infections include: chlamydia, human papilloma virus, E. coli, herpes virus and some others. It is worth noting that it is desirable to make tests for genitourinary infections not only for the future mother, but also for her sexual partner, in order to avoid the risk of re-infection. When revealing diseases, it is better to postpone pregnancy for a while and start treatment. After the problem is eliminated, you need to wait a few more months to get out of the body all the remnants of antibiotics used as a therapy.
- In some cases, when planning a pregnancy, the consultation of a geneticist will also prove to be superfluous. This specialist may be needed in such cases: if a couple can not have a child for many years, if the woman plans to become a mother after 35 years, if the potential parents are blood relatives, if the genealogical tree of one parent has cases of genetic diseases, etc.
What vaccinations should be done before pregnancy
Vaccination against rubella
One of the most dangerous diseases for a pregnant woman and her future child is rubella. Her virus easily overcomes the placental barrier and causes fetal development disorders, which is why rubella vaccination before pregnancy is considered one of the necessary measures to prevent deplorable consequences.
Rubella refers to those dangerous diseases that are carried by airborne droplets. The incubation period of the disease is 14-20 days. Women who are not lucky enough to catch rubella during the period of carrying the child, especially in the first half of the term, doctors strongly recommend an abortion. If you do not get a vaccine against rubella before pregnancy, the consequences for the mother and her baby can be very serious. The fetus develops heart and brain defects, deafness and blindness, mental retardation, various congenital malformations. If the virus got into the body in the third trimester, when all the organs and systems of the child are formed, in many cases so terrible consequences can be avoided.
The presence of immunity to the pathogen can be determined by analyzing the blood for antibodies, but even if there is no possibility to pass the analysis, the vaccination against the disease will not be superfluous. By part, vaccination against this virus is infrequent, consists of only 1 vaccination and does not require a repeat within 20-25 years. To inoculate against rubella should be at least 4-6 months before the planned date of conception. As an inoculation, a weakened live virus is used, which will remain in the body for the specified period. For the future mother, this virus poses no threat, but with some probability it can infect the fetus, so it is better to postpone the pregnancy for several months after the vaccination.
Asking which vaccines to take before pregnancy, you should not forget about chicken pox. A chickenpox is considered a "childish" disease, because most people manage to get sick at an early age and develop immunity to the virus. But those who have not experienced chicken pox as a child, risk getting it in adulthood. Unfortunately, many adults, due to the peculiarities of immunity, suffer this disease very hard. In addition, chickenpox refers to those ailments, which are easy to get infected, because it is very easily and quickly transmitted through the air from the carrier of infection. The incubation period of varicella varies from 1 to 3 weeks, after which watery blisters appear on the skin and mucous membranes of the patient, and the temperature of his body increases significantly. For a pregnant woman, chickenpox infection can be very dangerous. First, the high body temperature, which can not be knocked down by many traditional medicines, clearly does not benefit the baby. And secondly, if a future mother becomes infected in the first half of the term, in a certain percentage of cases her child may be born with the so-called "congenital varicella syndrome".Manifestations of this syndrome are defects of the brain and limbs, eye diseases, pneumonia.
Find out if a woman's immunity to chickenpox can also be done with a blood test for immunoglobulins. If antibodies in the blood are not found, it makes sense to vaccinate against the disease. Vaccination against chicken pox is done twice with an interval of 1.5-2.5 months. The vaccine, as in the case of rubella, contains a weakened live virus, therefore it is possible to plan pregnancy only 1 month after the last inoculation.
Vaccination from mumps
The causative agent of mumps is also a virus that is transmitted from an infected person to a healthy airborne droplet. The main symptoms of the disease are lesions of the parotid and salivary glands, inflammation of the brain, disruption of the pancreas and joints. Another terrible consequence of mumps can be infertility, because the virus partially affects the reproductive system.
If a pregnant woman has been infected with mumps in the first weeks of pregnancy, the probability of a miscarriage is high. An analysis of antibodies to mumps will help to find out whether a woman should be vaccinated. Vaccination from the disease is done 1 time, after it should be protected from conception for at least 3 months.
After vaccination against measles, rubella and mumps, the body of the future mother develops immunity cells, which will then be passed on to her child. This means that in the first months after birth, the baby will be protected from infection with such diseases. It is also worth noting that the three vaccines described above can be done both singly and in a complex. When using a three-component vaccine, the drug is administered once and does not require re-administration.
Hepatitis B vaccine
Hepatitis B virus is dangerous for its high resistance to adverse environmental effects. It can survive at low temperatures and boiling, retains its activity in the dried out body fluids, is able to exist outside the human body for many months. The main pathways of the pathogen distribution are infection through the blood and its components, as well as sexual transmission. A pregnant woman with hepatitis B in many cases risks transferring the disease to her newborn baby.
The incubation period of this disease is quite long and ranges from 2 months to 6 months. Due to the high infectiousness and dangerous consequences of hepatitis, it is recommended that a vaccine be given to everyone. But because during pregnancy a woman is often subjected to medical manipulations, the risk of infection for her increases. While in the womb of an infected mother to a child, the hepatitis B virus does not threaten, but in the process of childbirth, it can be transmitted to a baby passing through the birth canal and in contact with the woman's blood.
Vaccination against hepatitis B is carried out in 3 stages. The interval between the first vaccinations is 1 month, the interval between 2 and 3 vaccinations is 6 months. Although the vaccine does not contain a live virus, it is better to perform all manipulations before the pregnancy begins, that is, at least six months before the planned conception date. Vaccination against hepatitis B will reduce the risk of infection to 10-15%.
In some cases, a different vaccination scheme is used when planning pregnancy. The first 2 vaccinations are made immediately before fertilization at an interval of 1 month, and the third vaccination is carried out after 6-12 months, that is, after the birth of the baby. The first vaccinations provide protection against the virus for 1 year, the third vaccination allows you to get immunity from the disease for at least 15 years. This scheme has a drawback: in the interval between 2 and 3 administration of the vaccine, the body's defense is 75% instead of 90%.
A certain protein of the hepatitis B virus is used as the main component of the drug. Such a vaccine almost does not cause side effects, after vaccination, there may be a slight increase in body temperature and pain in the place where the injection was made. Pregnancy after hepatitis B vaccination can occur after 1 month.
Measles vaccination during pregnancy
Another measurable disease for a pregnant woman is measles. Its causative agent is a virus that spreads by airborne droplets. Symptoms of measles are felt about 1-2 weeks after the virus enters the body. The main manifestation of the disease is a rash, which at first covers the face and neck, then spreads to the trunk, and then appears on the folds of the elbows and under the knees.
In the adult age, this disease is very difficult to tolerate, the main complication may be pneumonia. If the ailment touched a pregnant woman in the first months of the term, then she risks losing her child due to spontaneous abortion. If the miscarriage does not happen, the fetus is prone to various developmental disorders, which often affect the brain and nervous system. If the immunoglobulin test did not detect the presence of antibodies to measles in the blood, a vaccination should be done when planning pregnancy. The vaccine is administered twice, the interval between vaccinations is a month. Since the vaccine contains a living virus, pregnancy should be postponed for at least 3 months after the last vaccination.
Vaccination against the flu
Annual epidemics of influenza for our country is not uncommon. Adult people suffer this disease in different ways, depending on the specific immunity characteristics. In the case of pregnancy, the flu is a particularly unpleasant disease, as many means for its treatment can not be used. If the immunity of a future mother does not cope well with the disease, various complications can arise. To avoid probable problems during pregnancy, a flu shot is not only desirable, but also necessary. The most severe consequences of the disease can be untimely labor or spontaneous abortion, as well as fetal infection in utero.
Vaccination against influenza is carried out approximately 30 days before the expected date of conception. The main thing is that at the same time the necessary drugs are available in hospitals.
Vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis
From diseases such as tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis, most of our citizens were vaccinated in childhood. However, the developed immunity is enough for 10 years, and if not re-vaccinated, the body again becomes vulnerable to these ailments.
- Poliomyelitis is a dangerous viral disease that provokes disturbances in the nervous system and spinal cord, causing paralysis. The virus lives in the feces of an infected person, so the infection mainly occurs through the soil. Together with dirty hands and unprocessed food, the polio virus enters the human body. Sometimes there are cases of airborne infection. The vaccine against the disease is of two types: one contains a live attenuated virus, and the other contains an inactivated agent. When planning conception, the second type of vaccine should be used, since a living polio virus lives for a long time in the intestine of a woman and can be transmitted to her child in utero. The inactivated vaccine is administered once a month at least 1 month before the planned pregnancy date.
- When planning pregnancy, it is worthwhile to get an inoculation against diphtheria. The causative agent of the disease is diphtheria bacillus, which is transmitted from an infected person to a healthy airborne droplet. Symptoms of the disease include: inflammatory processes in the nasopharynx, intoxication of the body, disorders in the work of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. At the time of pregnancy, diphtheria infection can lead to spontaneous abortion or premature birth.
- When planning pregnancy, vaccination against tetanus is also important - an infectious disease of bacterial origin. A person can become infected with tetanus in case of contact with another sick person, animal or an object on which clostridia are present. The disease is acute and poorly treatable. The main symptoms of tetanus are the strongest convulsions caused by tetanus toxin, which in its poisonous properties is almost equated with botulinum toxin. The poison released in the body of a sick woman easily passes the placental barrier and affects the nervous and other systems of the child. Lethality of the disease in the case of newborns is almost 100%.
Many wonder if it is possible to inoculate during pregnancy? We will answer that it is impossible to carry out any vaccinations directly during the period of gestation. This issue should be taken care of in advance and take all the necessary measures at least 1 month before the start of pregnancy.