The fastest way to transfer information from one person to another is the printed word. Depending on the tasks assigned and the target audience, the set of expressive means of the Russian language can vary considerably. It is important for both the reader and the writer to know how to determine the style of the text, because it will give an understanding of the written text, and will also allow us to outline a number of possible techniques by which the reader can easily convey his thoughts.
What is the text of
It is customary to call any speech that is written on paper or in electronic form, while it can be artistic or journalistic, in the form of a document, a letter, etc. In fact, the text contains at least two sentences, and they must necessarily be combined not only by sense, but also by grammar. The description of events or objects, fates or actions in the text is always predetermined by the main theme, the message. Regardless of the style, the theme of the writing should be clearly outli
As a rule, it's not so difficult to understand what will be discussed in the text, because the authors take the topic up, making it a name. For convenience, intermediate subtitles are used that give direction, explain to the reader what is waiting for him in this or that semantic part of the text. It is interesting that one and the same information can easily be submitted under different "sauce", for diametrically opposite audiences or cases. So, how to determine the correct style of text?
The concept of functional style of speech
In various areas of journalism, literature, there are different kinds of language. The word "style" has many definitions used in the visual arts, architecture, design( in addition to literature).Speaking purely about the literary meaning, it is a set of expressive( artistic and other) elements inherent in the writing of the text. Functional styles of speech look like this:
- Narration is a time-related exposition of events. The sequence in this type of text does not always correspond to the chronology, but is always associated with it. Narrative form requires the use of words: "while", "after", "after", etc. These words mark events, tying them to a specific section of the chronology.
- Description - an exposition of the qualities of the object of discussion. This type of text often uses adjectives that reflect the distinctive features of the subject: "beautiful", "big", "wide", "thin", "light", "fast".The description can use adverbs to compare with other objects of the same category "longer", "faster", "less", "deeper".
- Reasoning - this type of text contains three mandatory elements: statement, proof and conclusion. Initially, the argument indicates a certain thesis, for example: "Is there a UFO?".After this, there is evidence, an analysis of the truthfulness or infidelity of this statement, and on the basis of evidence, a conclusion is made about the correctness of the original statement.
What are the
speech styles? In Russian, there are four main language styles that differ from each other in different sets of techniques and characteristics and have their main text features:
- is a journalistic.
In each specific case, the author should know how to correctly determine the style of the text, which functional styles of the modern Russian language to use to convey its essence to the final audience. For example, when asked what type of text is, it's easy to answer if you know that:
- For official correspondence with business partners, bosses and subordinates, the official and business genre is suitable.
- And for personal communication and correspondence is more suitable for conversation.
- The description of events, places, emotions and experiences succeeds better with the help of an artistic style of exposition.
- The journalistic style of speech is designed to convey thoughts through the media - magazines, newspapers, the Internet. However, the texts of the media can not always be called journalism, in some cases a colloquial or scientific genre is used.
The result of this style of presentation is an article, reportage, interview or essay. Grammar and style of the genre provide for ease of reading and perception by the widest masses of the target audience. Publicistic style almost always does not involve addressing the reader, because the presentation is from a third party. You will find examples of this style by reading any newspaper.
The scientific-journalistic style is sometimes distinguished in a separate version. In this case, the text uses reasoning on scientific topics. The author at the outset makes an assumption, and throughout the article, an essay or notes proves the truthfulness or infidelity of this thesis, and in the end concludes on the basis of the arguments given. Language tools of scientific style require the use of precise definitions. Examples of journalistic style are common, confusing them with others is difficult.
The main use of the style is oral speech, and expressiveness and intelligibility for the masses makes it popular in publicism. This text uses oral expressions and accepts a direct appeal to the reader, asking questions and provoking an emotional perception of the written. Written conversational style differs from the oral one, becauseWith the help of the text it is more difficult to convey emotions expressed by facial expressions or gestures.
If we are not talking about literary magazines, this genre is not used in periodicals. What is an artistic text? It involves extensive reasoning, descriptions, dialogues, analysis. The task of the art style is not the transfer of information, but the maximum immersion of the reader in a work, the excitation of emotions, fantasies, the impact on the senses. This genre provides for the possibility of lengthy reasoning, subjectivism in the evaluation of facts, events and phenomena. The length of the text for those who use the book style of speech is not limited.
The official style of speech is intended for business communication both within the team and in correspondence with external organizations. Official and business is also used for oral communication, if it is business relations. The task of this style of text is the transfer of the maximum number of facts from one person to another without the use of evaluative adjectives. Widely used are standard phrases and repetitions, which in other styles are perceived as flaws or even errors.
The official-business style provides for a dry enumeration of facts, figures, the establishment of cause-effect relationships, a certain system that determines the construction of written proposals. The text of this type differs from all the others, it necessarily contains two elements:
- Descriptive part - here are the facts, possible consequences.
- Action - here you specify the requirement, request, offer for the commission of certain acts.
Examples of texts of different speech styles
Several models of using different genres to expose the same situation using text:
- The journalistic."This morning, Nyura's woman, going out into the shed to milk her cow, Zorka, was much surprised. She found an open door to the utility room, but there was no animal inside."Who led Zorka and what should I do without her?" - with such questions the woman Nyura turned to the local precinct Ivan Golovin. An investigation is under way. "
- Conversational."I go, Stepanovna, into the barn, but there's no Zorki!"I already called her, screamed, went to neighbor Petrovich - maybe he saw something. .. And he has since last night so typed, so far from the house does not come out. I went to the precinct officer, he said: "Write a statement, we'll figure it out."Well, I wrote. I went home through the cemetery, I look, and Zorka is my one in the meadow grazing! "
- Artistic."The light morning haze just began to dissipate, and the first sunlight touched the juicy grass of the front garden. Roosters began to yell their simple morning callsigns, and the village of Gulkovo began to wake up. The Baba Nyura appeared on the doorstep of a rickety wooden hut. She was looking for her cow. "
- Officially-business."On June 17, 2014 at 9:30 a police officer from the village of Gulkovo applied to the application with a Russian citizen, Egorova Anna Zakharovna. In essence, she explained that on June 17, 2014, at about 4:50, she discovered the loss of livestock( cows) on the territory of her own household farm. The animal was in a separate economic building. Egorova A.Z.Said that the cow could not leave herself and demanded to begin an investigation under Article 158 of the Criminal Code. The application was registered in the book of records of crimes and offenses.06/17/2014 at 16-00 Egorova A.Z.Again appealed to the militia department of Gulkovo village with a statement that the animal she was searching for was found and the applicant has no complaints. "
Speech style table
Excellent tool for those who do not know how to define the style of the text. The proposed table contains the basic style features. With its help you will learn how to define the style of the finished text, what kinds of speech styles are in Russian, the stylistic belonging of the document to be created:
|Style functions||Display, describe||Communication, conversation||Report, prove point of view||Bring information to|
|Scope of style||Literature||Household communication, personal letter||Social activities, cultural, political, Economic relations||Office work, lawmaking, creating normative documents|
|Genres of style||Verses, fairy tale, drama, novel, story||None||Reasoning-explanation, message, essay, newspaper article||References, statements, instructions, orders, samples, laws, plans|
|Characteristic features of the||style Using any kinds of syntactic and lexical constructions in all possible combinations||Emotionality, simplification or ignoring of grammatical rules, slang words||Image, logic, evaluation of events and phenomena, accessibility to the masses||Precision, depersonalization, standardization|