Causes and correction of phonetic-phonemic underdevelopment of speech in children( FFNR)

Contents of

  • 1. What is an FFNR?
  • 2. Characteristic of FFNP
  • 3. Degrees FFNR
  • 4. What is fraught with FFNR?
  • 5. How is it adjusted in pre-school establishments?
  • 6. Logopedic correction in junior classes

Phonetic-phonemic speech underdevelopment( FFNR) is a violation in pronunciation of sounds and perception of phonemes by ear. Such processes occur against the background of other verbal disturbances. For FFNR is characterized by distortion of sounds, replacement of some phonemes by others or their mixing, violation of the syllabic structure of the word, as well as lexico-grammatical disorders in an easy degree. FFNR refers to the categories of psychological-pedagogical classification of speech disorders.

Violations of sound recognition Violation of the perception and order of use of sounds in speech is a fairly common speech therapy and pedagogical problem

What is FFNR?

The phonetic-phonemic underdevelopment of speech represents various violations in the pronunciatio

n of sounds. The reason for the FFAR is the incomplete or incorrect formation of phonemic hearing, that is, defects in the perception of phonemes. It is important to note that the general hearing and the intellectual level of the child do not suffer and develop as expected.

The main problem for children with FFNR is the pronunciation of phonemes that are similar in terms of the acoustic-articulatory feature:

  • of voiced and deaf( g, b, c, b, etc.);
  • soft and hard( m-m, m, l, etc.);
  • hissing and whistling( w-s, w-h).
FFNR violated the phonemic analysis and synthesis. The child finds it difficult to mentally decompose the word into separate sounds, and also to distinguish certain phonemes or make up a whole word from their set. For example, if you say with separate sounds "d-e-p-e-in-about," the child will not understand that this is a "tree".Conversely, if you ask him to pronounce each sound of a word separately from others, he can not do it.

If a child finds it difficult to pronounce many phonemes, he will have problems with the syllabic structure of the word. In this case, it is difficult for him to pronounce words in which 2-3 consonants stand side by side( "formation", "trauma", "circle", etc.), and chains of different syllables( ta-ra-ra, para-a, ta-yes).

Characteristics of FFNR

Children are diagnosed with phonetic-phonemic speech underdevelopment, when they have the following defects in the development of oral speech:

  1. Pronunciation of sounds with various disturbances. The child speaks only phonemes instead of others, some do not know how to pronounce. Some or many of them he pronounces in a distorted manner, while the similarity to the correct sound may be present to a greater or lesser degree. It happens that the phonemes merge, and it becomes impossible to distinguish them. These speech defects often distort the meaning of what was said, which makes communication difficult.
  2. Violation of phonetic-phonemic perception, analysis and synthesis. The child does not distinguish certain sounds in someone's or his speech, most often confuses hissing and whistling, hard and soft, sonorous and deaf, "p" and "l".It does not know how to mentally distinguish individual phonemes in a word and to combine several phonemes into one whole.
  3. Fuzzy, indistinct pronunciation, inexpressive speech.
  4. In case the school age is already reached, there are problems with reading and writing.

It is also important to establish the degree of development of speech disturbance. The efficiency and success of the correctional program largely depends on this.

Features of child speech It is important to pay attention to the features of the child's speech even in everyday communication - parents clarifications will help the speech therapist to diagnose correctly and determine the degree of the FFND

. The degrees of the FFNR

FFN speech are divided into 3 degrees of complexity:

  • is light;
  • average;
  • is heavy.

With a mild degree of , difficulties are identified with distinguishing only those sounds whose pronunciation is violated. In general, the phonemic analysis is carried out without problems.

The average degree of FFNR is already characterized by significant problems with phonemic analysis. A child does not distinguish many sounds from different phonetic groups, whereas in his speech all sounds are present.

The third degree of the FFNR is the heaviest. The child does not know how to distinguish phonemes, many sounds do not distinguish and do not determine their order in the word.

FFNR is often accompanied by an incorrect phonemic perception( hearing of any sounds), and in different variations. For example, a child can perceive many phonemes, but his pronunciation has many shortcomings. In other cases, on the contrary, most sounds he pronounces correctly, but the perception is greatly violated. Unfortunately, often such forms of manifestation of FFNR are the result of the incorrect speech therapist's work on speech correction. It is very important that the work is corrective, rather than masking, deviation.

Child at the speech therapist Classes with a speech therapist do not always lead to the desired result - you need to take the most responsible approach to choosing a specialist, and at first - to the formulation of the correct diagnosis of

What is fraught with the FFNR?

The consequence of phonetic-phonemic speech underdevelopment, if this deviation is not corrected in time, it will certainly become that the child will not read and write well. Dyslexia and dysgraphia will inevitably lead to a lag in the school curriculum and, very likely, to psychological problems. That is why the correction of the FFNR must be carried out before the age of 7, so that the child will be well prepared for the school in all directions.

How is it corrected in pre-school establishments?

In preschool children, the correction of phonemic underdevelopment of speech is a session in a special speech therapy group. The program of such groups necessarily includes preparation for literacy training. Responsible for verbal correction of speech therapist.

The duration of the correction program is 1 year. As a rule, if there are no other developmental disorders, during such a time interval it is possible to correct the phonemic hearing and to ensure that the child correctly pronounces all sounds. After a year of corrective activities, the child is ready to enter secondary school in the same way as all other children.

Logopaedic work in small settlements makes it very difficult to have no specialized classes. Many kindergartens have the ability to adjust only the general speech underdevelopment( OHR), and there is no separate work with children with the FFNR.

When special groups are absent, the correction of the FFNR is dealt with by the speech therapist of a kindergarten or a children's polyclinic. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of such a course is reduced, since for a simplified version of the correctional program there is not allocated the necessary amount of time, and the complex approach is difficult to establish.

Logopedic correction in junior classes

Correction of phonemic speech underdevelopment, when a child is already at school, is more difficult, because in parallel it is necessary to eliminate violations of writing and reading that have already begun to manifest. The work of the speech therapist is conducted in the school and consists in setting the correct pronunciation, introducing the delivered sounds into speech, developing phonemic analysis and synthesis, and correcting shortcomings in grammar and reading.

The FFNR correction program takes only six months in the first grade. Not all children have enough time for complete correction of all speech defects, so it is better to try and eliminate them at the preschool age.


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