Immediately after birth, infants get into a completely new world that is unusual for them. The embryo posture is quite normal for newborn babies. Within 2-3 months after the birth, the baby should gradually straighten the limbs, getting used to the surrounding world. If three months after birth this does not happen, parents should be alerted. Excessive muscle tension of the infant in some cases indicates a violation in the development of its nervous system, which causes hypertonicity.
Hypertension in infants - what is it?
Hypertension of muscles is a restriction of voluntary motor function in an infant, caused by certain impairments in the development of the brain and peripheral nerve. According to statistics, nine out of ten newborns have violations of muscle tone. In the case of hypertonia, there is usually resistance to passive movemen
Causes of muscle hypertonicity
Each newborn with such a diagnosis causes the development of hypertension are very different. The appearance of limitations on the mobility of the infant's limbs in a number of cases provokes prolonged childbirth or certain diseases that the mother suffered during the gestation of the child. Among the frequent factors that cause the appearance of hypertonia, there are:
- oxygen starvation( hypoxia) in the period of gestation;
- diseases, suffered by the mother during pregnancy;
- chronic mother disease;
- strongly prolonged or rapid delivery, in which the child experiences excessive pressure or lack of oxygen;
- incompatibility of Rh factors in parents.
Symptoms and signs of hypertonicity in infants
Tension in a baby's muscles until a certain age is a natural physiological phenomenon. However, when the hands and feet remain limited in movements after 2-3 months of life, this is the reason to suspect that the child has hypertension of the upper and lower extremities. In addition to clenched jaws, lack of flexibility of the body, stiffness of the muscles of the arms and legs in the infant, the following symptoms are noted:
- regurgitation against a background of poor appetite;
- restless sleep, which is constantly interrupted and accompanied by nervous jerks, sharp head twisting;
- the kid can cry and simultaneously bend the body. At the same time limbs and chin quiver;
- when the kid is put on the surface, he, instead of stamping, starts to stand on tiptoe.
If the baby has the above signs of hypertension, then it is worth to see a doctor to determine the final diagnosis. This violation is amenable to correction and treatment, so it is important to remain calm. Nervousness and concern of parents are instantly transmitted to the child, which negatively affects the baby's condition.
How is hypertension of the hands manifested?
Muscular hypertension of the baby's handles is manifested in increased resistance with passive retraction of the upper extremities from the chest. Strongly clenched fists are a common symptom, a sign of a neurological disorder. Such a condition should alert, becoming a reason to seek advice from a qualified pediatrician.
Hypertension of the legs
Hypertension in infants is manifested in limited mobility of the lower limbs. Violation is dangerous for the development of motor functions. The inhibition of development will affect the future gait and physical activity of the child. When hypertension of the legs in 6 months is contraindicated using a walker. Such adaptations contribute to strengthening the state of muscle tension in the legs and spine.
Methods of treatment of hypertension in children up to the year
To prescribe medication and make up a set of necessary procedures for hypertension of muscles in a child of 3 months and older is allowed only to a neurologist. Self-medication can lead to aggravation of the problem and development of negative consequences. Make it clear that the earlier the appointment and start the course of correction of the neurological disorder, the faster the positive results and the apparent effect of the treatment will appear. A baby with muscular hypertonia is prescribed: baby massage, health gymnastics and therapeutic baths.
For hypertension in a young child, massage is performed daily on its own, beginning with 2 weeks of baby's life. First of all, you need to consult a medical employee who will tell you in detail and show you how to conduct the massage correctly. On average, it will take 10 sessions. During the passage of such treatment, the disorder should gradually pass. Relaxing massage includes 3 types of touches: stroking, rubbing, rocking:
- To begin with, with the back of the hand, stroke the baby on the surface of the legs, arms and back. Alternate superficial touches with fingers with light girths all over the brush.
- For circular rubbing of the skin, place the baby on the tummy, gently with your fingers make a dashed motion from the bottom up. The same effects should be placed on the handles and legs.
- Take the baby for the brush, start gently shaking it. During the massage, be sure to hold the toddler's hand over the forearm. The procedure should be carried out with each handle and foot.
- Take the child slightly above the wrist, rhythmically shake in different directions.
- Calm, relax the muscles after the massage you need smooth strokes.
Video training on massage technique
It is clearly demonstrated how to conduct a professional massage relaxing session with hypertension of the legs and arms in a child of 4 months in the video below:
To help the baby relax muscles in hypertension, experts recommend not using additionalMedicamental methods of treatment and conduct recreational gymnastics. Special exercises will increase the chances of a speedy recovery, help to develop normally and function muscles. The main goal of gymnastics is to stimulate full motor activity and develop individual reflexes:
- put the baby on its side, slowly iron it on the back from priests to the neck along the spine. Do not apply pressure to the baby's body. During the exercise, the baby will bend.
- Lightly press the foot under the fingers, on its inner surface. The baby will start bending the toes and feet in response. Then draw a hand along the outer surface of the foot - then the child will unbend it. During the gymnastics, it is important for the parent to remain calm, so that the baby is not afraid and begins to trust him.
All kinds of water treatments and aromatherapy are beneficial for the nervous system of the baby, helping to relax the muscles and eliminate hypertonia. Motor activity during bathing will help to get rid of crumbs from excessive squeezing and stiffness. When hypertension in the bath is useful to add broths from medicinal herbs - lavender, motherwort, oregano, eucalyptus.
During the water procedures the child should not be taught to dive. Diving under the water with a head for an infant is a serious stress that can provoke an increase in the symptoms of hypertonia. During bathing, carefully monitor the condition and mood of the crumbs. It is important that water procedures give him pleasure and only pleasant emotions.
Fitball exercises with photo examples
Before starting to practice on the fitball, be sure to consult a pediatrician. On a small fitball without horns and pimples lay a film on which the belly put the baby. While holding the child, start slowly swaying it in different directions. When performing this exercise, all muscle groups work to hold the balance. While rocking on the fitball, the baby's handles approach the floor, prompting the activation of the extensor muscles.
Together with the child, pat the ball with your hands and feet. This exercise will amuse the crumb, will help a little to relax the tension in the muscles. The photo clearly demonstrates several exercises, the implementation of which will significantly weaken the symptoms of hypertension. The doctor will help to make the most accurate prognosis for recovery, give individual recommendations for a specific case.