To what age children are considered to be newborns: the timing and general characteristics of mental development in a given period

Contents of

  • 1. Timeframe
  • 2. General characteristics of the neonatal period
  • 3. Crisis moment
  • 4. Early neonatal period
    • 4.1. Skin tone
    • 4.2. Milies and acne
  • 5. Late neonatal period
  • 6. Features of the operation of various organs and systems of the child
    • 6.1. Vision of the
    • 6.2. Rumor
    • 6.3. Touch, taste, smell
    • 6.4. Leather
    • 6.5. The urinary system
    • 6.6. Respiratory system
    • 6.7. Cardiovascular system
    • 6.8. Digestive system
    • 6.9. Nervous system

In the life of the child, several important periods are distinguished. The first of them begins immediately after birth, or more precisely - at the moment of circumcision of the umbilical cord, when the breathing and circulation of the baby become autonomous. This time interval is called the neonatal period or neonatal period. Its essence consists in adapting crumbs to extrauterine vital activity.

Circumcision of the umbilical cord The period of newborn
begins after the birth of the baby and the cord cut-off

Timeframe

For most young parents, it remains a mystery how children are delineated for newborns, babies and babies. We will deal with this issue. Let us find out how many days the duration of the neonatal period is. According to medical sources, newborn baby is considered from the moment of birth to 28 days, that is 4 weeks.

In turn, the neonatal period is divided into:

  • early - 1-7 days;
  • later - 7-28.
A baby, a baby, a baby are identical concepts. They refer to a toddler whose age is more than 28 days, but less than 1 year. Infancy in pediatrics is divided quarterly - 3 months from the date of birth, 6, 9, 12.

General characteristics of the neonatal period

All organs and newborn baby's systems are immature, both in terms of morphology( structure), and taking into account the functional activity. After the birth, their intensive restructuring takes place, the purpose of which is to adapt the organism to extrauterine existence, to the conditions of the external environment.

Neonatal period After the birth, the child actively adapts to the conditions of the surrounding world.

An important feature of the neonatal period is the instability of the equilibrium in which all the systems of the body are dying. Minimal changes in external conditions can significantly affect its internal state.

The main changes that occur in the baby's body at the moment of stopping blood ripples in the umbilical cord:

  • starting a small circle of blood circulation;
  • the onset of pulmonary respiration;
  • transition to enteral nutrition, in which food is absorbed through the mucosa of the digestive tract.

The crisis moment

Life begins with stress. The moment of passing the baby through the birth canals is called the crisis of the newborn period. Specialists in the field of psychology consider this stage to be a difficult and crucial one for a new person. Components of the crisis:

  1. Physiological factors. There is a physical separation of the child from the mother. He ceases to be a part of her body, becomes autonomous.
  2. Psychological aspects. The actual separation from the mother is the baby a sense of helplessness and anxiety.
  3. Changing external conditions. After the birth of a child is in a completely new world where everything is different from the previous living conditions - temperature, air, light, another way of eating, breathing and so on.
Newborn baby The life of a little man begins with the stress caused by a difficult passage through the generic paths of the

. A person appears absolutely helpless. To protect him and ensure survival, nature laid in him a certain set of unconditioned reflexes - sucking, swallowing, grasping and so on.

Early neonatal period

In the early period of the newborn, which lasts one week from the moment of birth, not only does the baby get acquainted with the world, but also the first contacts with the mother. The real appearance of crumbs may differ from the image that she imagined. This is due to the physiological boundary conditions of his body.

Skin tone

A heterogeneous and uncharacteristic for the adult people shade of the child's skin can be caused by:

  • erythema;
  • by the response of blood vessels to external conditions;
  • jaundice.

Erythema - reddening of the skin with a bluish tinge. Usually it appears on the feet and hands. The cause of erythema is a sudden change in the temperature of the environment: from 37 ° in the womb to 20-24 ° in the ward of the hospital. In addition, the aquatic habitual for the child is replaced by air. Erythema is not a pathological condition and does not require treatment. Body temperature, general health and appetite of the baby are within normal limits. After a few days in the places of redness, the epidermis can begin to peel.

Erythema of the newborn The cause of erythema is a sharp drop in the temperature of the environment.

The physiological response of the vessels often occurs in premature infants during the newborn period. It is a consequence of the immaturity of the vascular system. Its manifestations:

  • marbling cover, cyanotic stains;
  • uneven body color, on one side the skin is red, and on the other pale with blue, this happens after sleeping on one side.

This condition can occur during 2-3 days after birth. The child does not need treatment, but the doctors watch him.

In the newborn period, jaundice occurs as a result of functional liver failure due to its immaturity. The organ can not neutralize the increased amount of bile pigment entering the blood. Normally, physiological jaundice, in which the baby's covers acquire a characteristic shade, lasts about a week. In babies born before the term, it can last up to 6 weeks. Yellowness of the skin, which lasts longer than the prescribed period, is an occasion to consult a doctor.

Milies and acne

The work of the sebaceous and hormonal glands in the newborn is not adjusted. After the birth on his face, you can see miles and acne.

  • Milies are white dots that usually appear on the nose, forehead and cheeks. They arise because of blockage of the sebaceous glands. It is strictly forbidden to touch them. Milia pass by itself in a few weeks.
MILIES OF THE NEWBORN Milies do not require treatment and pass in the child themselves
  • Acne neonates - red pimples with a purulent white tip, similar to youthful acne. Usually they appear on the face, but there may be a back and neck. The cause of acne in children is an excess of maternal hormones in the blood and imperfect work of the sebaceous glands. Within 2-3 months they pass. Pimples do not need to be treated. Care must be taken to ensure hygiene. In addition, you can apply a once in 3 days cream "Bepanten" a thin layer.

During the newborn period, not only the described physiological phenomena related to the normal development of the child are found. Anomalies of the structure, hereditary pathologies, fetopathies and so on can be revealed. The mother requires increased attention to the child, which will help to see in time the deviations in the physical and mental development.

Late neonatal period

Late neonatal period lasts 3 weeks. Pediatricians call it the time of recovery after disadaptation syndromes. Key Features:

  • the kid is separated from the mother in fact, but is strongly associated with it physiologically and emotionally;
  • child's organs and systems are in the process of development, they are not fully ripe, especially for the central nervous system;
  • water-salt metabolism is very mobile;
  • the body of the newborn undergoes changes in the biochemical, functional and morphological aspects;
  • the state of the child is largely dependent on external factors;
  • in violation of living conditions, physiological processes quickly transformed into pathological.
Baby care The state of the child in the period of late infancy strongly depends on the quality of care.

At this age, the baby needs care. It is important to satisfy his needs for food, drink, sleep, affection. This is what ensures the child's survival. Most of the day the newborn spends in a dream, but over time the number of hours of wakefulness increases. The visual and auditory systems develop, instead of unconditional automatisms, conditioned reflexes arise. The baby overcomes the crisis and gradually adapts to the new conditions.

Features of various organs and systems of the child

Mental and physical development of children has certain age patterns. Up to what age the maturation of this or that system will last, depends on the individual characteristics of the child and the external conditions of his life activity. However, doctors identify the general norms that are characteristic of most healthy babies.

Vision

Muscles responsible for the movement of the eyeballs, as well as optic nerves in newborns are not formed by 100%.As a result, there is a physiological strabismus. This phenomenon, caused by insufficient development of oculomotor muscles, is considered normal and eventually passes. At the stage of early infancy, the baby distinguishes light from darkness, that is, delimits day and night.

Physiological strabismus Physiological strabismus is normal and goes without treatment

Rumor

During the first 3-4 days of life, the child's ears are not filled with air, so his hearing is somewhat reduced. Then there is a gradual development of the hearing aid and the baby hears almost like an adult. With very loud sounds, he shudders. In this case, you can see how the frequency and depth of his breathing change, as well as facial expressions.

Touch, taste, smell

Due to the uneven distribution of nerve endings, the newborn reacts unevenly to touching different parts of the body. The skin of the face and limbs is more sensitive than the back cover. In general, the sense of touch is well developed.

The age-old feature of crumbs is the love for the sweet taste that mother's milk possesses. Having tried something sweet, he licks his lips, makes swallowing movements, calms down. If the liquid is bitter or salty, the child stops sucking, crying, grimacing.

The smell of the baby is developed. Sharp aromas cause him a reaction, expressed in a change in the frequency of breathing.

Breast-feeding Loved by the taste of the child supplies the milk of his mother

Skin

Skin covers of the baby are blood supply much more intense than in adults, due to the large number and increased diameter of the capillaries. Any damage, the cause of which is eliminated, quickly heal. However, the development of sweat glands is not enough. As a consequence, a child younger than a month easily overheats due to high air temperature or too warm clothes.

The urinary system

The development of the kidneys of the baby ends after the birth. The bladder contains a small amount of urine, the properties of which differ from the standards that are typical for an adult. For infants, their age standards are used, relating to protein content, specific gravity, biochemical reactions. In the first week, urination occurs 4-5 times a day, then 15-25 times.

Respiratory system

Children at the stage of newborn, as well as in infancy, have narrow upper respiratory tracts, which include nasal passages, larynx, trachea. Mucous membranes lining them are actively supplied with blood. They are very sensitive to mechanical irritants and dry air. The frequency of breathing is normal - 40-60 movements per minute.

The newborn sleeps Breathing in children is superficial even in sleep

Cardiovascular system

After the birth of the functioning of the cardiovascular system, the child changes cardinally. Vessels and openings through which placental blood flow was carried out are closed. The lungs are filled with blood. The normal pulse rate is 110-140 beats per minute. Any external influence leads to its change.

Digestive system

Digestion of the digestive system continues after birth. The child appears in the world with developed chewing muscles and a large tongue. Thanks to this, he can actively suck, not tired for a long time. Salivary glands are underdeveloped, therefore they produce little secret.

During the first 24 hours, the baby's gastrointestinal tract is sterile, but quickly populated with flora. The volume of the stomach grows daily: after birth, its capacity is 20 ml, after a week - 50 ml, after 4 weeks - 100 ml. The optimal food is breast milk. In the body of the baby, enzymes are produced precisely for digesting it.

The appearance of the stool varies gradually. First it is brown, then yellow-green, then - yellow, mushy with a sour smell. Transformations are associated with the process of colonization of mucous membranes by bacteria.

Breast-feeding The optimal breastfeeding for a child of this age category is considered to be breast milk

Nervous system

The nervous system of the child develops most actively during the first months of life. First, he spends most of the day( 20-22 hours) in a dream, since in the cerebral cortex the inhibition processes prevail over excitation. Over time, periods of wakefulness increase.

The excitability, reflexes and reactions of the baby are constantly transformed. The tone of the muscles of the arms and legs is very pronounced. During this period, for example, there may be a physiological tremor - the trembling of the muscles of the limbs. In addition, a number of unconditioned reflexes are associated with the immaturity of the brain, which all children initially have, but are dying out in the first year of life.

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