Contents of the
- 1. Physical development of the child of 2 years
- 2. Motor skills and motion coordination
- 3. Psycho-emotional and social development
- 4. Mental and speech development
- 5. Methods of child development in 2 years
- 5.1. Exercises for physical development of
- 5.2. Exercises for fine motor development
- 5.3. Development of attention and memory
- 6. Nuances of classes with the child at home
All parents want their children to develop normally and keep up with their peers. Each child's age, including two years, has its own peculiarities of physical, psycho-emotional and mental development. Make sure that the crumb develops according to age, will help to know what the child should be able to in 2 years. Knowing how and what to take a crumb, adults can help him acquire new skills and abilities.
Physical development of a child of 2 years
The main physical parameters, followed by parents and pediatricians - the growth and weight of the baby. At this age, children grow intensively, and the body weight of crumbs usually should be 1/5 of the weight of an adult. The main factors influencing these parameters are:
- power supply;
- climatic conditions;
- physical activity;
The following table shows the average growth rates and weights for boys and girls at the age of two:
|Child gender||Height, cm||Weight, kg|
Fat cells that accumulate in the early months and years, according to nutritionists, remain for life, so the issue of extra kilos should be taken seriously. Overweight can often be caused by overeating, eating too much fat and carbohydrate food, a low-activity way of life, in more rare cases - a metabolic disorder.
It is important to pay attention to the proportions of the child's body, the features of the skeleton and muscle mass:
- Long body and arms + short legs cause displacement of the center of gravity.
- It is also considered the norm when children bulge their belly forward, and their back is bent backwards. This is due to the fact that their internal organs are not yet placed in the abdominal cavity.
- In addition, the head of children two years more than the trunk, and this is normal from the anatomical point of view.
- . The bones of the skeleton at this age still remain soft and supple, with a large amount of cartilaginous tissue. Their ossification is still at the stage of completion. However, the cranial bones and the bones of the ridge become sufficiently strong.
- For a two-year-old child still characterized by chubby cheeks, creases on the hands and feet, dimples in the bends of the knees and elbows. Over time, the fatty tissue replaces muscle tissue.
Motor Skills and Motion Coordination
The physical development of a 2-year-old child is directly related to motor activity and movement coordination. In the period from one year to three children learn and improve their ability to walk. Over time, their movements become more confident, and walking - conscious. By setting a specific goal, they try to achieve it. For example, to get to your favorite toy, catch a dove, climb yourself up the stairs.
In two years, in addition to targeted walking, children already master well enough:
- overstepping obstacles;
- climbing and descending stairs and inclined surfaces;
- running for short distances;
- low jumps;
- walking on a log or curb;
- kicking the ball with the foot;
- turns and walking backwards.
Despite such tangible progress, coordination of movements is not so developed yet. To keep balance, kids often stretch their arms, and with rapid movement they have difficulty stopping. They also continue to fall often. Clumsiness in movements can be observed up to adolescence.
often fall. However, managing both hands with a crumb is already quite good. He can draw and sculpt from plasticine, from a short distance to catch the ball. During this period, parents can introduce the child to scissors - of course, under the guidance of an adult.
In addition to all of the above in the arsenal of the child there are also useful household skills. He knows how to do it himself:
- wash hands and face;
- eat liquid dishes with a spoon;
- walk on the potty;
- to put on and take off some things.
Psycho-emotional and social development
Up to 5 years old children are unable to control and control their thinking, memory and attention. These psychological processes are beyond their control. Children's attention in two years is easy to switch with the help of a more interesting or new lesson. At this stage of development, kids all new grasp on the fly and absorb information, like sponges.
From the emotional point of view, children are very susceptible to other people's emotions. So, it is often possible to observe a situation when a cheerful smiling crumb begins to cry or becomes displeased if another child is beside himself or is hysterical next to him. It is for this reason that the psychological situation in which the baby is growing plays an important role.
By the age of two, children are becoming more sociable, they begin to show interest in other people's lives and play on the playgrounds with other children. They are easier to come into contact and interact with others. Naturally, this is the time of the first quarrels and conflicts. In addition, the kids already emotionally color their speech with the help of facial expressions, movements and exclamations. Also they are very fond of playing, singing, listening to music, watching cartoons and developing videos.
In addition, in child psychology, there is an imitation and copying of adults. Children love to wash, clean, cook with their parents, thus showing independence. Such aspirations should be encouraged, all the more so this is another way than taking a child in 2 years at home.
Psychologists say that boys and girls at this age differently evaluate adults and gradually realize their gender identity. The table below describes the main differences in the emotional, psychological and social development of boys and girls in 2 years:
|Evaluating adults, taking into account their desire to teach something or to play together||Assess adults based on their attitude towards them|
|Realize that they should not wear dresses, they should be strong and courageous like dad||They understand that they wear skirts and will look like mums in the future.|
|. They show more activity and buoyancy.||. They are more calm and balanced.|
|. They are restless, they are indifferent to the creativity of||. They are more diligent, with better developed onesAnd speech|
|Self-reliant in all||Require constant approval from adults|
Mental and speech development of
In two years, children have certain knowledge and relevant skills. They should:
- distinguish between 4-8 colors;
- be able to group objects by colors;
- to know the basic geometric shapes;
- distinguish properties of objects - for example, hot or cold, light or heavy;
- know the numbers and count, show on your fingers your age.
At this stage, the kids are already emotionally painting their speech with the help of facial expressions, movements and exclamations. Vocabulary is quickly replenished and usually amounts to about 300 words. Children's vocabulary is enriched with adjectives and pronouns, and instead of simplified notation such as "yum-yum" or "boom", the words "eat", "fall" appear.
Children at this age begin to understand a lot, take short stories about familiar things, point to pictures of objects that they will be asked to show. Their desires and needs they are already able to express in the form of simple sentences, in which the syntactic structure can be violated. Also, children often omit sounds, change syllables in words in places and invent their own words, replacing them with ordinary ones.
Methods of child development in 2 years
Child care 2 years consists not only of hygiene, nutrition and regimen. It includes developmental activities, exercises and games. It's great if you can drive crumbs into mugs or sections, but you can conduct classes with your child for 2 years at home. On the Internet, a lot of videos about the care and development of children, the recommendations of psychologists and pediatricians, including Dr. Komarovsky. It is important to choose the methods of classes and care that are suitable for the baby and arrange for the parents.
Exercises for physical development
The goal of physical exercises is to strengthen bones and muscle tissues. They are also necessary for the musculoskeletal system to form correctly. There is no need for special gymnastics, just a few exercises that should be performed in a game form and without coercion. For example:
- Track or footbridge. Make a path from a narrow piece of cloth or paper and ask them to pass along the crumb without leaving the edges and keeping the balance. You can present this as crossing the river or arrange a competition with a prize at the end. On a walk for this exercise fit curbs and logs.
- The harvest. The task of crumbs - to collect in a basket scattered cubes, toys or balls. For this he will crouch or bend over. You can do this for a while or compete, who will collect more.
- Transformation. The baby needs to portray animals, birds, insects or transport. For example, you can ask him to jump like a frog or fly like a butterfly.
- Charging. Squats, turns, jumps and pull-ups under the merry music will be to taste for any kid. Sometimes it's enough just to dance.
- Games with ball or fitball. A crumb can roll the ball with his hands, kick, run after him and roll on it. This all contributes to the development of coordination of movements.
Exercises for the development of fine motor skills.
Stimulation of fine motor skills promotes the rapid development of speech and thinking. This will help:
- Fingering gymnastics and games. There are enough videos and books on this subject on the Internet. The simplest exercises are the squeezing and unclamping of the jaws, bending of the individual fingers, walking with the middle and index fingers over a hard surface.
- Drawing and modeling. For creative pursuits, there are finger paints and a special dough for modeling. The usual clay and pencils are not inferior in efficiency.
- Games with small items. For example, chestnuts and acorns on the street, beans, buttons, large beads, walnuts at home. They can be collected, transferred, spread from them pictures.
- Developing toys. Constructors with various details, mosaic and cubes. It is desirable for parents to put them together with the child.
Development of attention and memory
To develop memory and attention crumbs at home will help games:
- In hide and seek. Let the little one look for a toy placed somewhere in the room or on the street of a private house. You can hide more than one toy, but for example a whole zoo throughout the apartment.
- Inverted picture. Show a drawing of the child, turn it around or remove it, and ask to describe it, what happens in the picture. To simplify the task, you must ask leading questions.
- Three items. To lay out three toys in front of a crumb, describe them. When he turns away, remove one, and then ask to say which one is not.
Nuances of classes with a child at home
Childcare 2 years and the conduct of classes has its own characteristics. Below is a reminder for parents who want to develop a child at home:
- "No" to overload the child with exercises and tasks. Classes with children of 2 years should not be complicated and last more than 15 minutes.
- Alternating active and passive games.
- Patience and help. The child only learns and tries, it must be taken into account.
- Match games to age.
- Reduce the load before bedtime. It is advisable to read or just talk. In addition, reading and simple conversation contribute to the development of speech.
- "No" to coercion classes.
- Communication. We need to communicate with the baby as much as possible, spend time with him, be interested in his life, ask questions.
- Praise. Do not forget to praise the crumb for his achievements. For him it is very important.
- Walk more in the summer months and in winter.