Causes of urinary incontinence in women

Causes of urinary incontinence in women

Many people of young and old age suffer from urinary incontinence. Medical statistics confirm that this disease ranks first among the urogynecological diseases that occur among women. Why does urinary incontinence occur in women? This prevalence of this problem with health is explained by the fact that often patients at the initial stage of the disease hesitate to go to a specialist, and when they decide to get help from a doctor, it is not easy to restore the functioning of the genitourinary system.

What is urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence( incontinence) is defined as a person's inability to control urine outflow from the body. This health problem is especially prevalent among the elderly. Urinary incontinence in women, the causes of which will be discussed below, is worried by 33.6-36.8% of Russians. And international statistics cite data that shows that over 100 million people worldwide suffer from this problem.

Causes of the disease in young and elderly women

Earlier from the medical point of view, urinary incontinence was regarded as a symptom of various diseases. However, in recent years, widespread use of this problem in people of different ages has forced doctors to treat this disease as a separate disease. Older women often face urinary incontinence during the day or night. Often this is due to age-related changes in their body.

Girls 20-40 years old also sometimes suffer from this unpleasant problem. Urinary incontinence arises from violations in the work of detrusor( muscular wall of the bladder), weakening of the pelvic floor muscles, sphincters of the bladder and urethra. These conditions in people of different ages can arise due to various diseases and external factors. Urinary incontinence in women causes the following reasons:

  • Complications after childbirth. Urinary incontinence often develops in women after rapid or severe delivery. The more children a woman gives birth, the higher the risk of developing this disease. The cause of spontaneous leakage of urine in this case are the perineal injuries and ruptures of the pelvic floor muscles that arise during labor.
  • Diseases. Problems with incontinence of urine in the body can lead to diseases that affect the normal functioning of the genitourinary system. These include: stroke, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, trauma, inflammation of the spinal cord, malformations of the urino-genital organs, tumors.
  • Pregnancy. Future mothers may notice that with the growth of the fetus, the frequency of urge to urinate increases and sometimes there is an involuntary leakage of urine. This happens because during pregnancy hormonal changes in the body and the enlarging uterus cause changes in the functioning of the bladder.
  • Operations on the genitals. With complex gynecological operations, there is always a risk of damaging the nerves that are responsible for the proper functioning of the detrusor, the sphincter. If, as a result of surgical intervention, the innervation of these organs is disturbed, there is a problem with incontinence of urine.
  • Climax. It causes hormonal imbalance, which affects the work of the genitourinary system and the ability of the body to retain urine.
  • Age is more than 55 years. In the elderly, pathological changes occur in the work of the genitourinary system and weakening of the muscles of the bladder. These processes cause problems with urinary incontinence.
  • Injury of pelvic organs. If, with perineal injuries, the anatomical integrity of the urinary tract and nerve trunks that are responsible for bladder emptying is disturbed, it often leads to urinary incontinence.
  • Poorly cured cystitis in youth can manifest itself in the elderly in the form of problems with urination.

The main signs and symptoms of

The clinical picture of this disease has several main symptoms. These include frequent urination, in which a patient with urinary incontinence visits the toilet more than 8 times a day. Other symptoms are nightly frequent urge to cope with the need and feeling that the bladder has not completely emptied. With physical exertion, coughing in patients with this disease, spontaneous excretion of urine occurs. All those suffering incontinence can not control the process of urination and the urge to manage the need.

Night incontinence - enuresis

Urinary incontinence in women whose causes may be different, often occur at night in a dream in the age group older than 55 years. The causes of this health problem are hormonal changes in the body, which leads to a decrease in the production of estrogens. This causes weakening of the muscles of the urogenital diaphragm, perineum, changes in the state of the urethral mucosa. Often, factors that cause urinary incontinence in women are the causes associated with severe labor or overexertion of the muscles of the genitourinary system.

Stress - with sneezing, coughing and laughing.

If there is a disruption in the functions of the urogenital system, stress incontinence occurs. The cause of this phenomenon is often the weakening of muscles or damage to the anatomical structures of the pelvic floor. These disorders lead to the omission of the uterus, bladder, rectum and urethra. Due to these changes, intra-abdominal pressure, formed by sneezing, coughing and laughing, can lead to the outflow of urine.

Urgent or imperative

Imperative urinary incontinence is associated with bladder hyperactivity or impairment of the nervous system. It is characterized by periodic leakage of urine, arising against the backdrop of an uncontrollable desire to address the need. As a rule, after uncontrolled urge, urine is released. Urgent urinary incontinence in women can be caused by external factors: the sound of running water, the reception of alcoholic beverages, nervous overexcitation, cold or sudden changes in temperature( for example, when leaving a warm room for frost).


Sometimes women may exhibit signs of urgent and stress urinary incontinence. For this type of incontinence, a characteristic feature is the combination of uncontrolled urge to cope with need and spontaneous leakage of urine during physical exertion or coughing. Often, this pathology occurs after childbirth, which resulted in ruptures and damage to organs in the pelvis.

Other species of

Transient urine incontinence arises from external factors affecting the body, in case of elimination of which the problem with urination disappears. Temporary involuntary leakage of urine can provoke infections and diseases of the genitourinary system. Acute cystitis, inflammation of the vagina are common causes of transit urinary incontinence in women.

There is still a kind of this disease, called undermining. With this kind of incontinence after a normal urination there is a slight discharge of urine, which is the result of its accumulation in the diverticula of the urethra or in the vagina. Urinary incontinence of a permanent nature arises because of the weakness of the sphincter, fistulas, anomalies in the structure of the genito-urinary organs.

Methods of treatment

To get rid of urinary incontinence in women, the reasons for which may be different, you need to contact a specialist. The doctor to confirm the diagnosis will recommend to undergo examination at the gynecologist, to make ultrasound of the small pelvis, uroflowmetry and cystometry. Based on the results of the research, the doctor will prescribe the treatment. It can include taking hormonal medications, performing Kegel exercises, magnetic stimulation of the pelvic muscles. Sometimes, to restore the function of the urinary system, specialists can suggest an operation.

Let's consider in more detail what includes conservative and operative treatment of incontinence. Treatment without surgery effectively helps patients with an initial stage of the disease, who spontaneously secrete a small amount of urine. Physiotherapeutic procedures using diadynamic, galvanic currents or electrophoresis are administered to patients with incontinence to restore the function of the bladder.

Drugs that normalize the function of the urinary system are used for medicinal treatment: topoterodine, oxybutynin. A good effect in the treatment of urinary incontinence gives regular performance of Kegel exercises and classes using the method step-free, the essence of which is to keep special medical supplies in the vagina. The goal of surgical intervention for spontaneous urinary excretion is to eliminate the pathology of the urinary tract. In this disease, the following operations are performed:

  1. Introduction of a medical gel into the urinary tract.
  2. urethrocystocervicopexy. This procedure helps to restore the pubic-cystic ligament holding the ureter.
  3. Loop operation. During this surgical intervention, a loop of biological or artificial material is placed under the ureter as an additional support.
  4. Neuromodulation. Surgically, an electrode is implanted in the spinal cord to regulate reflexes.
  5. Injection. This manipulation consists in conducting a special substance in the bladder tissue to increase their volume and tightly closing the urethra.

Folk remedies

The problem of urinary incontinence worries people for a long time. In the past and in our time, traditional medicine helps to get rid of this disease by simple means, prepared on the basis of natural components. Herbal medicines will help to remove inflammation and normalize the functioning of the urethra. Several proven recipes that effectively help to get rid of urinary incontinence are given below:

  • Connect in equal parts to dry St. John's Wort and a centipede. From 1 tbsp. L.The resulting mixture and 200 ml of boiling water make a decoction. Drink the medicine for the day.
  • St. John's wort( 40 g) chop and pour 1 l of boiling water. Leave to infuse for 3 hours, strain, drink during the day.
  • Use in the morning, in the evening before meals for half an hour 1 tsp. Honey, dissolved in 200 ml of warm water.
  • Make a herbal collection by mixing 100 g of nettle leaves, althea root and 70 g of yarrow. For the night in a thermos, brew 2 tbsp. L.Received a collection of 0.5 liters of boiling water. The next day, drink infusion instead of tea.

Kegel Exercises

A good effect in the treatment of urinary incontinence gives the performance of special exercises aimed at strengthening the muscles of the small pelvis. Such physical culture will give a positive result only with regular exercises in therapeutic gymnastics. Particularly effective will help restore the pelvic floor muscles performing Kegel exercises. When performing this gymnastics, only the muscles of the pelvis should be strained, and the buttocks, hips and press should remain at rest. This gymnastics is based on three techniques:

  1. Performing a slow compression of the pelvic muscles that help stop urination. This exercise begins to perform with the tension of the musculature of the pelvic floor organs, which in a compressed position hold for 3 seconds and then relax. Then they count to 3 and then strain again. Gradually increase the interval of the muscles in the compressed position up to 20 seconds. Do the exercise 10-30 times three times a day.
  2. Performing contractions of the pelvic floor muscles. Do the exercise alternately quickly shortening, and then relaxing the musculature of the lower part of the pelvis. Do the exercise 10-30 times three times a day.
  3. Exercise of pelvic muscle ejection. To do this exercise, you need to work the muscles that are involved in attempts at labor and during the defecation process. It is necessary to strain with a delay( 2 sec) and relax the muscles. Do the exercise 10-30 times three times a day.

Causes of urinary incontinence in women