- 1. Basic functions of hemoglobin
- 2. Hemoglobin level
- 2.1. Normal performance in children up to the year
- 2.2. normal values in children from 1 year to 18 years
- 3. reasons for reducing HGB
- 4. Anemia
- 5. How to increase hemoglobin?
- 6. Hemoglobin is higher than the norm
When deciphering a child's blood test, parents often wonder what that indicator means. One of the most significant characteristics is hemoglobin. This value is not constant, however, its value should be within certain limits. What is hemoglobin, what is its normal value, and whether it is possible to influence the blood formula? We will find out all this in order.
main function of hemoglobin
word "hemoglobin" consists of two parts, the first of which in ancient Greek means blood, and the second in Latin - the ball. Indeed, th
You need to do a blood test to determine the level of hemoglobin - the result will show how many grams of this protein is determined in a liter of blood. The analysis is taken in the morning, preferably on an empty stomach.
What are the norms of hemoglobin in children? Much depends on the age( up to a year, after 2 years), the presence of diseases. Other factors are important. For example, during a viral illness, if the baby has a fever, the blood composition changes. In particular, the level of hemoglobin( HGB) decreases, in order to achieve an acceptable value after recovery.
Normal values in children up to the year
The norm of hemoglobin in children up to a year depends on its age. In the first three days of life, it is higher, then significantly reduced. Such a picture is explained by the fact that the baby has a process of substitution of one type of protein for another, as well as hemolysis of newborns. What should hemoglobin be in children before the year? The table shows the average values of the protein depends on the age grudnichka:
|Age||Norm HGB, g / l|
|1 - 3 days||145/220|
|4 weeks||100/ 180|
|3 - 6 months||95/135|
|6 - 12 months||100/140|
As you can see, the hemoglobin readings in infants unstable by high numbers in the first three days of life, they fall to 90 g/ L.By the end of 1 year, the protein in the blood stabilizes, and it becomes approximately the same as in an adult.
Normal indices in children from 1 year to 18 years old
Beginning at age 2, the hemoglobin level in a child becomes higher, however, its average values are not the same in each period. From the age of 18, normal values do not change until old age. With the help of the presented data it is possible to trace the dynamics of this indicator:
|Age||HGB norm, g / l|
|1 - 2||105/145|
|3 - 6||110/150|
|7 - 12||115/150|
|13 - 15||115/155|
|16 - 18||120/160|
We indicated the average values without gender division. However, from the age of 12 the sex of the child affects the number of red blood cells. In boys, the level of hemoglobin is usually higher than that of their peers. The difference in these values can be seen from our table:
|Age||Girls, HGB, g / l||Boys, HGB, g / l|
|12 - 15||112/152||120/160|
|15 - 18||115/155||117 /160|
Causes of a decrease in the level of HGB
What can hemoglobin in a child have below normal? Here it is worth noting that this indicator depends on many factors and does not always indicate a deviation. Sometimes the level of hemoglobin is lower if the following facts occur:
- It is noticed that HGB decreases about 17 hours and starts to rise at 7 am.
- If the patient used food before the test. After eating, the hemoglobin will decrease while the digestion process takes place. In this regard, it is not recommended to have breakfast before taking the test.
- If the blood is taken in a hospital, or at home in a patient who lies, the level of hemoglobin will be slightly understated.
- It happens that the lab technician excessively squeezes the pincushion of the finger, and the intercellular fluid gets into the capillary blood. This changes the ratio of components, and hemoglobin can be reduced.
Next, consider more serious reasons for reducing the level of HGB.There are diseases, one of the symptoms of which can be low hemoglobin:
- oncological diseases;
- autoimmune diseases;
- atrophic gastritis;
- of blood disease;
- iron deficiency;
- disruption of the gastrointestinal tract;
- ARVI, which lasts more than 3 - 4 days.
If the patient has a decrease in hemoglobin below the boundary values, the doctor can diagnose anemia or anemia. Anemia can be mild, moderate or severe. To determine the degree of disease in the patient, you can compare the results of the analysis with the hemoglobin readings in this table:
|Age, years||0.5 - 5||5 - 11||12 - 14|
|Normal HGB, g / l||More 109||More 114||More119|
|Light anemia HGB, g / l||100 - 109||110 - 114||110 - 119|
|Average degree of HGB, g / l||70 - 100||80 - 109||80 - 110|
|Heavy stage Hb, g / l||Less than 70||Less than 80||Less than 80|
The severity of anemia has its own characteristics, and treatment in each case is assigned individually. If the level of hemoglobin becomes critical - falls below 70 g / l, children are shown blood transfusion. In other cases, the doctor decides on the transfusion, focusing on other indicators of the health of the baby - his behavior, the condition of the skin. If anemia is not treated, the child begins to lag behind the peers in physical development, his internal organs will not be able to cope with their functions well.
There are varieties of this disease. Children often diagnosed with such kinds of anemia:
- Iron deficiency. This type of anemia occurs in patients whose bone marrow does not produce red blood cells in the right amount. The reason for such failures is usually hidden in the lack of iron and vitamins.
- Hemolytic. Anemia occurs because the erythrocytes are destroyed, they are getting smaller. The reasons for this condition can be many.
- Avitominoose. If a child regularly experiences a deficiency of vitamins, in particular B12, his blood test may well show a decrease in hemoglobin.
Children with anemia have other symptoms of this disease. If its degree is medium or severe, the following symptoms are possible:
- the inner surface of the eyelids becomes pale;
- the child shows a poor appetite;
- complains of dizziness;
- appears during short periods of dyspnea;
- extremities often cold;
- is weakened immunity - a son or daughter often suffers from cold and infectious diseases;
- weak concentration of attention;
- fast fatigue.
How to raise hemoglobin?
If hemoglobin is reduced due to avitominosis, rather than a serious disease, its level can be raised on its own. It is important to revise the child's diet, its physical activity, and also pay attention to outdoor walks:
- Food. Be sure to include in the menu products containing iron: beef liver, pomegranate juice. Useful greens - spinach, lettuce leaves. Also need to eat enough fruit: red apples, lemons. Useful honey, dried fruits, black caviar.
- Walking in the fresh air. Hemoglobin in the blood of a child is lowered, its red blood cells can not fully perform their functions - to deliver oxygen to tissues and organs in full. In these conditions, saturation of the body with oxygen partially helps to compensate for this deficit.
- Physical loads in a lightweight version will also allow easy satiation of blood with an additional portion of oxygen. Do not bother the child too much - let him perform the exercises that he can do in the form of a game.
Hemoglobin is higher than the norm
It happens less often that the hemoglobin in the child's blood exceeds the permissible values. If the analysis was given after active physical activity, this indicator will be increased. It has also been observed that hemoglobin in residents of high-mountainous regions is higher than in all others. In young children, blood thickening often occurs due to dehydration. This can happen after a rotavirus infection, when the baby loses a lot of fluid, or it is observed on hot days. In this regard, pediatricians, contrary to the recommendations of the WHO, advise drinking milk with water if the window temperature exceeds 30 ° C.
However, an increase in hemoglobin levels may indicate more serious problems. This pattern is observed with:
- heart defects;
- intestinal obstruction;
- the presence of burns;
- diabetes mellitus.
The doctor will prescribe additional studies to exclude the presence of diabetes mellitus, or other diseases that may cause increased hemoglobin levels. If all other health indicators are normal, the doctor will recommend a special diet and vitamins. In the diet of the child there should not be foods rich in iron and cholesterol. Sometimes a pediatrician advises to go through a set of procedures with leeches. Such therapy not only reduces the excessive level of hemoglobin, but also helps to strengthen the vessels, and also prevents them from clogging.