The first days of a newborn's life: a manual for newly-made parents

The first days of a newborn's life are exciting moments. We will tell parents about the physiological characteristics of the baby and the rules of organizing care for it.
Care for a newborn baby

After the birth of

The birth of a child is a step into a new life, in which everything will be different, because a new person has appeared in the world, who needs the care and care of parents. In these first days of a newborn's life, parents have to get to know their crumbs and master a lot of unaccustomed activities.

The changes are worrying, but it will not take a week, as you feel more confident and relaxed in the new role. And we will try to support you, having acquainted with the physiological features of newborns and the peculiarities of caring for them.

When the baby is born, the neonatologist determines if the baby is ready for a new life. First of all, the baby is separated from the umbilical cord. If his condition is satisfactory, then the baby is laid out to his mother on the stomach. At the end of the 1st and a

t the end of the 5th minutes after the birth of the , the state of the baby is assessed according to the APGAR scale.

The evaluation includes:

  • character of the cry,
  • heart rate,
  • skin color,
  • reflexes,
  • muscle tone.

This APGAR test is very important for doctors who determine whether a newborn needs or needs a resuscitation aid. And if so, to what extent.

The neonatologist is still in the delivery room, on the heated table, the baby is inspected scrupulously. The state of health and condition of the child after the transferred birth is assessed, attention is paid to the presence of birth injuries, congenital malformations, breathing and palpitation are heard with the help of a stethoscope.

After examining the doctor, the midwife is taken for the job: weighs the baby, measures his height, the circumference of the head and chest. In addition, mandatory newborns for the prevention of conjunctivitis treated eyes 30% solution of sodium sulfacyl.

Well, that's all. A baby after a primary examination can be attached to the chest.

Cough in a child without fever It is useful for parents to know that a cough in a child without temperature can be cured without expensive syrups and antibiotics.

What should I buy for a newborn baby? How to choose a stroller, crib, bath, as well as clothing and hygiene products? Read the detailed instructions.

Are you disturbed by frequent regurgitation of the baby? Perhaps our tips will help reduce their frequency.

Do you want to diversify the grown-up kid's menu? We offer a selection of recipes for original dishes for those who are 1.5 years old.

What does a newborn look like?

Newborn's head: what to look for

The length of the baby's head is ¼ of the body's length, so the corpuscle's corpuscle seems small compared to the head. Circumference of the thorax is less than a couple of centimeters.

Mom, do not be scared seeing a slightly deformed outline of the head. A little elongated and flattened from the sides of the head of a crumb is the result of passing through the birth canals with natural childbirth. On the head there may be a so-called generic tumor that does not require any treatment and disappears in the next 2-3 days.

On the head, all neonates have neoconosthennye areas of the skull - fontanel. The most noticeable fontanel can be perfectly felt, having held a palm above a forehead. It completely closes to 1-1,5 years. More details about the timing of the closure of fontanelles, we tell here. Do not forget to make a neurosonography in time - ultrasound of the brain.

Eyes

Physiological features of the newborn Newborns have some features of appearance, disappearing some time after birth

The newborn does not know how to control his eye muscles yet, it is difficult to focus his eyes, so it seems that the crumb sometimes "mows".

Almost all newborns have the same eye color - steel or blue. Most often it is called "infant".By 6-12 months he will change to permanent.

Hair

On the head of the newborn, hair can be practically absent or, conversely, can be very thick. Over time, the thickness of the hair will change, and their color.

Nose

The nasal passages are narrow, and the lungs have a small volume, so the newborn has a respiratory rate of 40-60 per minute.

Heart

A small "motor" beats with a frequency of 130-140 beats per minute. In the first days of life in a newborn, defecation( stool) occurs up to 7-10 times a day( meconium is called original feces), and urination is 20-30 times.

The baby's umbilical cord usually disappears for 5-7 days of life, by the time of discharge from the hospital. Umbilical wound in most cases dries up by this time, and there are no any discharge on it. But her process is not over yet and you need to continue to look after her at home.

The first days of a newborn's life are the strongest stress for a crumb that left the mother's womb, in which it perfectly existed for 9 months. During this critical period, the blood circulation is restructured, the thermoregulation becomes established, the skin is adapted to the external environment, and the motor activity is gradually increased.

How does buds work?

In the first days of a newborn's life, a pediatrician assesses kidney condition in various ways.

Color of urine

Its very first portion is almost transparent and does not smell anything. In the first 3-4 days, the urine of the crumbs becomes cloudy and concentrates, acquiring an intense color, as physiological weight loss. This is considered the norm in the early days, but should not be repeated later.

Smell

It should not be. An acidic odor that emits ammonia indicates rickets.

Micturition mode

On the 2nd day the newborn empties the bladder 5-6 times( this is due to the fact that the baby still eats little, but actively loses moisture when emptying the bowels, breathing and evaporating from the skin).

By the 7th-8th day of life, the number of urination reaches 20-25 times a day.

If the urine is much less common, it is necessary to consult a pediatrician. It has long been noted by moms and pediatricians that in children who are on artificial feeding, urine is produced more, so they empty the bladder more often.

The physiological state of the newborn

Erythema in newborns The jaundice in newborns in most cases passes naturally and without any consequences and complications

Physiological should be understood as absolutely normal, natural conditions. Among them:

Weight loss

The first 3-5 days of life a newborn can lose 5-8% of the initial weight at birth. Loss is compensated for 2 weeks of life.

Erythema( reddening of skin)

This condition is associated with the expansion of skin capillaries in response to the effect of low( in comparison with the fetal) ambient temperature. The physiological erythema manifests itself on the 1-2 day after birth, takes place on the 5th-7th day of life.

Jaundice

It is observed in more than half of the newborns. Appears on 2-3 day of life and, without requiring special treatment, disappears after 7-10 days.

Vaccinations and not only

During the first 12 hours after birth, the crumb is vaccinated against hepatitis B, and on day 3-4 - against tuberculosis. During the stay in the maternity hospital, the newborn receives a general blood test that helps to determine the presence of anemia and inflammation in the body, and a blood test for a genetic disease: hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria, which, if detected, require immediate treatment.

Read more about the vaccination schedule for up to 3 years in a separate article.

Newborn care

Care for the newborn in the early days of the home Each eye should be treated with a separate clean swab

. In the maternity home, mothers are helped by a well-trained and friendly nursing staff to breastfeed, teaches the skills of caring for the umbilical cord and the skin of the newborn. Returning home, you should take care of the newborn.

Each morning should begin with face washing. This procedure is advisable to conduct between the first and second morning feeding. Washing is carried out only with warm boiled water. The face can be wiped with cotton swabs or a hand.

At the same time, is used to wipe the ear buds. External auditory canals are cleaned by rotational movements with the help of cotton buds with a stop.

eyes should be cleaned with a cotton swab, wetted boiled water movements, directed away from the outer edge of the eye to the inside.

The nose should be cleaned with with cotton buds with stoppers. You can use a special aspirator for the nose with a wide safety tip. Warn: this procedure of cleaning the nozzle is not the most pleasant, but it should be remembered that newborn babies can not breathe with the mouth, so the nasal passages must be necessarily clean.

Treatment of umbilical wound

The most important point of daily care for the newborn is the treatment of the umbilical wound until it is fully healed. Umbilical wound should heal completely by the 15th day of life, and until this point, it is necessary to carry out the treatment 2 times a day. This will require

:

  • 3% hydrogen peroxide solution,
  • 1% alcoholic solution of brilliant green,
  • cotton swabs.

The sequence of actions when processing the umbilical wound

  • is moistened with a cotton swab with hydrogen peroxide,
  • , we process the umbilical cord itself until the peroxide ceases completely,
  • we dry the umbilical wound with a clean cotton bud,
  • moisten the cotton swab with a solution of brilliant green,
  • treats the umbilical wound.

No day without a diaper

It's hard to imagine a modern baby without the best invention of our days - a diaper. But it should be remembered that with non-observance of hygiene in this area, this achievement of civilization carries a number of dangers.

The diaper should strictly match the crumbs in size. If it is small, it will hurt the delicate skin of the baby. If the diaper is large, it will simply leak.

Dimension range of diapers

Name

Weight of the child, kg

Mini
2-6
Midi
5-9
Maxi
8-18
Maxi Plus
10-20
Jumbo - Junior
12-25

In addition, some brands produceSpecial diapers for premature babies born weighing less than 2 kg.

When using diapers in newborns, the umbilicus should always remain open so that there is no irritation. Remember! The skin should "breathe" , so the baby needs to "holopopit" at least 15-20 minutes with each change of diaper. Terms

cleaning the newborn

main method of cleansing the skin when changing a diaper is podmyvanii under running water( water temperature 37-38 ° C).

When podmyvanii kid should know a few rules

  • before you start cleaning the baby, be sure to check the water temperature( it is enough to substitute his hand),
  • girls to wash from front to back,
  • after cleaning the skin toddler dried blotting movements using a soft, clean nappy, the pressed from two sidesWith the steamer,
  • , then the folds of the skin are treated with a cream under the diaper.

When using funds under the diaper should follow the golden rule: "Wet dry them, moisturizes dry," so we use powder or cream, respectively.

We do not forget that on the second day after birth it is possible and necessary to organize the first bathing of a newborn.

Notes

Dream

Rules for the erosion of a newborn Most ventilate the room where the baby sleeps, and do wet cleaning every day

One of the foundations of proper and emotional development of the child - a strong and healthy sleep.

Baby cot should be spacious, comfortable, with a hard mattress, with a small pillow, or better at all without it. The rules for choosing a mattress for a newborn you will learn from the review.

The room where the baby sleeps must be ventilated before going to bed. The cot is best placed away from batteries, heaters and windows.

It is very important to protect the little man from overheating and drafts. By the way, if there is a need for warming up the air in the nursery, it is recommended to use only closed oil heaters, since they are safe and do not burn oxygen.

The most common problem is too dry air in the nursery. You can correct the situation with the help of special moisturizers or time tested "grandmother's" means: a basin with water, moistened and wrung out curtains.

Daytime sleep of the baby in the first month of life can range from 15-30 minutes to 2-3 hours, night - 10-13 hours. A newborn can sleep in the daytime about 6-8 times a day. At night, many children wake up very often;A strong phase of sleep at best lasts from 12:00 to 5:00 in the morning.

Basic childcare activities for the first months of life

Age

Activities

0-3 months
  • indoor temperature + 21-22 ° C,
  • air humidity 50 to 60%,
  • during diapering, massage, diaper changing - airBath from 5 minutes( max 20 min),
  • obligatory sleep in the air,
  • washing at water temperature + 37-38 ° C,
  • general bath for 5-6 minutes at water temperature +37 ° C

Walking

On the first walkIt is possible to go out on the 7-10th day after discharge from the maternity hospital in the autumn-winter period and already for 2-3 dHb in the spring and summer. Begin with 5-10 minutes, gradually increasing the duration of the walk.

In a warm season, you can walk for 5-6 hours a day( for 1.5-3 hours at a time) and 2-3 hours a day in the cold season. If in the first month of life of the newborn the temperature in the street dropped below -10 ° C, the walk should be postponed to more comfortable weather.

Well, in the end I want to remind you that the best thing that my mother can give her baby is breast milk. Feed the baby is recommended on request.

About the rules of feeding a newborn baby with breast and milk formula read here.

And finally, a few video tips for caring for the child in the early days of life.