- 1 When not do without antibiotics
- 2 Features effects of drugs on the body of the child
- 3 Allowed means
- 4 What drugs are banned
- 5 How to choose and receive antibiotic
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Antibiotics - drugs of synthetic or organic origin. First used in the early twentieth century, they experienced a surge in development in recent decades. Currently, more than 100 species are known, divided into 11 groups.
The action of antibiotics is aimed at suppressing or completely eliminating bacteria. However, there are no universal drugs that equally effectively fight microorganisms of all types and in different tissues. Therefore, despite the availability of drugs on a free sale, a doctor should prescribe them, especially during the period of breastfeeding. The effectiveness of treatment determines not only the selection of the correct antibiotic, but also the correction of the dose, the frequency of admission.
When antibiotics can not be dispensed with
The need to take antibiotics occurs in inflammatory processes. Many of them, caused by the reproduction of staphylococci, streptococci and other microorganisms, can not be overcome by other means. This is important to consider a nursing mother, which is recommended antibiotics for lactation. Do not abandon the appointment of a doctor in diseases:
- birth canal due to complicated delivery;
- infectious-inflammatory processes of the respiratory tract, ENT organs;
- intestinal infections;
- diseases of the kidneys, genitourinary system.
The reception of antibacterial agents ensures a quick recovery and normalization of the woman's well-being. In this case, the drugs also affect the baby's organism, coming to him with feeding. Therefore, the basis for selecting them during breastfeeding should be the maximum safety for the child.
Always tell your doctor that you are breast-feeding! There are highly effective for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases, which are prohibited in pregnancy and lactation due to the toxic effect on the body of the baby.
Features of the effects of drugs on the baby
The intake of antibiotics in breastfeeding can be dictated only by necessity. But if the drug is used for its intended purpose, the risk of negative reactions to the baby is minimized. Nursing mother should take into account the "behavior" of the drug in the body, to exclude unnecessary disturbances.
- Breast milk penetrates 10% of the amount of funds taken by the mother .Such information leads the American professor of pediatrics Jack Newman in the scientific work "Myths about breastfeeding."Because of the minimum dose, the scientist generally advises not to worry about the peculiarities of the influence of antibiotics on the baby's body, since it is insignificant. However, pediatricians generally do not share this opinion, not recommending the use of drugs prohibited during breastfeeding.
- The safe reception circuit can be selected individually by .Drugs are distinguished by the time of decay and excretion from the body. For antibiotics of the new generation, it is hours, for preparations "from the last century" - from a few days to a week. These data are listed in the section "Pharmacokinetics" in the annotation to the drug. Given the time taken to remove the drug from the body, you can combine it with the periods of feeding with minimal risk, for example, take the drug before bedtime.
- Antibiotics that are compatible with breastfeeding are classified in the A-C classification of the American Federal Food Safety Commission( FDA).The first group includes harmless drugs, the research of which was conducted on animals and on humans. The second and third groups include funds, the research of which was carried out only on animals, and they showed a positive effect. Security in humans has not been tested. In Russia, this classification is not used, but it is possible to clarify the compliance of the means in the annotation to the drug.
For approved antibiotics, the annotation states that the drug is approved for use during breastfeeding. Or appoint a doctor, taking into account the potential benefits and harm to the mother and child.
What are the possible antibiotics for lactation? Specialists cite several groups of drugs that can be used by doctors in medical practice with regard to lactating women.
- Penicillins ( Ampicillin, Oxacillin, Ticarcillin, Piperacillin, Amoxicillin).The first antimicrobial agents invented by man. Their huge group is the "drug of choice" for pregnant and lactating women, as well as for infants of the first year of life if antibiotic therapy is necessary. When ingested, they have a powerful inhibitory effect on the pathogenic flora. The risk for an infant is the likelihood of allergic reactions. Impact studies were studied by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2008 using the example of the drug Amoxicillin. It was noted that the volume of its penetration into breast milk is about 0.095% of the dose taken by the mother, which is extremely low for the development of any reactions. But in 8% of children breastfeeding caused side reactions in the form of rashes on the skin and short-term diarrhea.
- Cephalosporins ( "Cefazolin", "Cefuroxime", "Cephrioxone", "Ceftibuten", "Cefepime").These funds of the new generation are officially recognized as safe for use in medical practice. Their minimal degree of penetration into breast milk and nontoxicity is noted. The disadvantage is the ability to provoke a dysbacteriosis in a child with a decrease in the volume of vitamin K production, which in turn participates in the blood and digestion of calcium.
- Macrolides ( "Erythromycin", "Clarithromycin", "Azithromycin", "Spiramycin", "Midekamycin").The drugs are used in the presence of allergic reactions to the funds of the previous groups, since they are group F according to the FDA scale, that is, their appointment should be carried out taking into account the potential risks for the mother and the child.
These drugs are not exhaustive for international practice. For example, in the US, antibiotics are officially recognized as safe when breastfeeding a group of fluoroquinolones, in particular, the drug "Ofloxacin."Doctors of Great Britain hold a different opinion. In this country, "Ofloxacin" is banned for prescribing to nursing women, since there is evidence that it provokes damage to interarticular cartilage and impaired growth in children.
What drugs are prohibited by
The prescription of a doctor forbidden during breastfeeding may be dictated by the severity of the disease. In severe infections( sepsis, meningitis) can not do without drugs that are incompatible with breastfeeding. However, in more "light" cases, doctors recommend that they stop breastfeeding and take the course of treatment with this remedy. The basis for this is its clear correspondence to the characteristics of the disease, the maximum productivity for a woman and the minimum of negative consequences.
To antibiotics, for the reception of which it is recommended to interrupt breastfeeding, carry drugs of five groups.
- Aminoglycosides ( Streptomycin, Kanamycin, Gentamicin, Nethylmycin, Amikacin).These drugs have a low penetrating ability in breast milk. However, in small concentrations can affect the baby's kidneys. There is information about their toxic effects on the child's optic nerves, the defeat of the vestibular apparatus, the organs of hearing. Their use is prohibited simultaneously with breastfeeding, as the risk of side effects on the child is huge.
- Tetracyclines ( "Tetracycline", "Doxycycline").One of the most controversial antibiotics, the appointment of which requires a particularly balanced approach. Toxic effect on the mother's body, and in children cause damage to the growth of bone tissue, worsen the state of tooth enamel( the effect of "tetracycline teeth").
- Fluoroquinolones ( Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin).In the United States only one drug from this group is allowed to use: "Ofloxacin."In the countries of Europe, they are not used for lactating women.
- Lincosamides ( "Lincomycin", "Clindamycin").Their negative impact is manifested by disruption of the baby's intestines.
- Sulfanilamides ( "Biseptol", "Streptocide", "Sulfadimezin", "Sulfacil-sodium", "Ftalazol", "Etazol").These funds aggressively affect the liver of the child, resulting in the possibility of toxic lesions, the development of nuclear jaundice.
Suspension of breastfeeding does not mean its completion. With a properly selected course, the mother's recovery comes quickly, after which the feeding can continue. During treatment, a woman needs to express milk. Use it in food is not allowed. You can make a supply of breast milk to feed the baby in advance. Keep it allowed in the freezer for 1 month.
After completing the course, it is necessary to wait for the time necessary to completely remove the drug from the body. You can specify it in the annotation to the tool. For different antibiotics this period ranges from 40 hours to 7 days.
How to choose and take an antibiotic
Antibiotics for breastfeeding should only be prescribed by a doctor. It is unacceptable to engage in self-medication here! In doing so, you should tell your doctor about your desire to continue breastfeeding. The specialist will choose the safest option for you and the child.
You should also tell your doctor about the following.
- Whether the baby was born healthy or prematurely .Features of the assimilation of medicines in the premature baby are fundamentally different from the processes in the body in time of the born baby. In this case, even authorized drugs can be dangerous. And the feeding will have to be abandoned.
- Does the child have allergic reactions, congenital defects .It is impossible to predict the effect of an antibiotic in this case, therefore, the doctor will most likely recommend stopping breastfeeding.
- Baby Feeding Regimen .Taking into account the individual treatment, the doctor will recommend the optimal time for taking the drug, which will reduce the amount of its intake into breast milk.
- Age of child .The body of a month's crumbs can react negatively to the most "safe" drug. A baby at 10 months of the same means will not bring any harm. The reason for such different perceptions is the individual degree of maturity of metabolic processes of children of different ages.
You can control the amount of antibiotic intake into breast milk yourself.
- Specify in the annotation the time of drug suction into the blood .During this period, the amount in breast milk is maximized. Transfer the intake time so that concentration peaks do not occur during the feeding period.
- Use short-term courses .A number of antibiotics have the property of accumulating in tissues with prolonged use. When accumulated in the tissues of a child, they cause allergic reactions.
- Use the lure .When a baby reaches 6 months of age, you naturally reduce the intake of antibiotic in his body thanks to the lure of cereals, vegetable and fruit purees.
Do not change the dosage of the drug at your discretion and change the treatment schedule if it is matched and adjusted by the doctor. This will reduce the effectiveness of the drug, and the course will need to continue for longer.
Modern medicine gives a clear answer, which antibiotic can be used for breastfeeding. But in each case, you need to weigh the risks, assess the condition of the baby, his individual characteristics. The doctor will help to do this in order to find an effective treatment scheme for you and a safe one for the child.